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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/RHEUMATOLOGY/KEAA578

The cut-off values for the intima-media complex thickness assessed by colour Doppler sonography in seven cranial and aortic arch arteries.

02 Mar 2021-Rheumatology (Oxford Academic)-Vol. 60, Iss: 3, pp 1346-1352
Abstract: Objectives Colour Doppler sonography (CDS) is becoming ever more important in the diagnosis of GCA. Data on cut-off values for intima-media complex thickness (IMT) that can be used in clinical practice to distinguish between normal and inflamed arteries are limited. We aimed to derive potential cut-off values for IMT of seven preselected arteries by comparing IMT between GCA patients and a control group. Methods We performed CDS of the preselected temporal, facial, occipital, carotid, vertebral, subclavian and axillary arteries in consecutive newly diagnosed GCA patients between October 2013 and September 2019. A 'halo' with positive compression sign was considered a positive finding. We measured the maximum IMT in the preselected arteries and compared it with the maximum IMT of the control group. Results We were able to demonstrate a halo sign in at least one of the examined arteries of 244/248 (98.4%) GCA patients. Temporal arteries were the most commonly affected vessels, involved in 192 (77.4%) patients. We found extracranial large vessel involvement in 87 (35.1%) patients. The following cut-off values showed high levels of diagnostic accuracy: ≥0.4 mm for temporal, facial and occipital arteries, ≥0.7 mm for vertebral arteries, and ≥1 mm for carotid, subclavian and axillary arteries. Conclusion The involvement of a large array of arteries is easily and commonly detected by CDS and provides a high diagnostic yield in patients with suspected GCA. Proposed IMT cut-off values might further improve the diagnostic utility of CDS in these patients.

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Topics: Vertebral artery (55%), Giant cell arteritis (51%), Halo sign (50%)
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10061163
Abstract: Background: Risk stratification based on pre-test probability may improve the diagnostic accuracy of temporal artery high-resolution compression sonography (hrTCS) in the diagnostic workup of cranial giant cell arteritis (cGCA). Methods: A logistic regression model with candidate items was derived from a cohort of patients with suspected cGCA (n = 87). The diagnostic accuracy of the model was tested in the derivation cohort and in an independent validation cohort (n = 114) by receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis. The clinical items were composed of a clinical prediction rule, integrated into a stepwise diagnostic algorithm together with C-reactive protein (CRP) values and hrTCS values. Results: The model consisted of four clinical variables (age > 70, headache, jaw claudication, and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy). The diagnostic accuracy of the model for discrimination of patients with and without a final clinical diagnosis of cGCA was excellent in both cohorts (area under the curve (AUC) 0.96 and AUC 0.92, respectively). The diagnostic algorithm improved the positive predictive value of hrCTS substantially. Within the algorithm, 32.8% of patients (derivation cohort) and 49.1% (validation cohort) would not have been tested by hrTCS. None of these patients had a final diagnosis of cGCA. Conclusion: A diagnostic algorithm based on a clinical prediction rule improves the diagnostic accuracy of hrTCS.

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4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/RHEUMATOLOGY/KEAB547
03 Nov 2021-Rheumatology
Abstract: GCA is the most common large vessel vasculitis in the elderly population. In recent years, advanced imaging has changed the way GCA can be diagnosed in many locations. The GCA fast-track clinic approach combined with US examination allows prompt treatment and diagnosis with high certainty. Fast-track clinics have been shown to improve prognosis while being cost effective. However, all diagnostic modalities are highly operator dependent, and in many locations expertise in advanced imaging may not be available. In this paper, we review the current evidence on GCA diagnostics and propose a simple algorithm for diagnosing GCA for use by rheumatologists not working in specialist centres.

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Topics: Cost effectiveness (52%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/ANNRHEUMDIS-2021-220306
Abstract: Objectives To assess the sensitivity to change of ultrasound halo features and their association with disease activity and glucocorticoid (GC) treatment in patients with newly diagnosed giant cell arteritis (GCA). Methods Prospective study of patients with ultrasound-confirmed GCA who underwent serial ultrasound assessments of the temporal artery (TA) and axillary artery (AX) at fixed time points. The number of segments with halo and maximum halo intima–media thickness (IMT) was recorded. Time points in which >80% of patients were assessed were considered for analysis. Halo features at disease presentation and first relapse were compared. Results 49 patients were assessed at 354 visits. Halo sensitivity to change was assessed at weeks 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 and showed a significant standardised mean difference between all time points and baseline for the TA halo features but only after week 6 for the AX halo features. The number of TA segments with halo and sum and maximum TA halo IMT showed a significant correlation with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (0.41, 0.44 and 0.48), C reactive protein (0.34, 0.39 and 0.41), Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (0.29, 0.36 and 0.35) and GC cumulative dose (−0.34, −0.37 and −0.32); no significant correlation was found for the AX halo features. Halo sign was present in 94% of first disease relapses but with a lower mean number of segments with halo and sum of halo IMT compared with disease onset (2.93±1.59 mm vs 4.85±1.51 mm, p=0.0012; 2.01±1.13 mm vs 4.49±1.95 mm, p=0.0012). Conclusions Ultrasound is a useful imaging tool to assess disease activity and response to treatment in patients with GCA.

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Topics: Halo sign (68%), Halo (55%), Giant cell arteritis (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1055/A-1286-6663
Abstract: Klinischer Zugang Die Bestimmung der Pratestwahrscheinlichkeit auf Basis standardisierter Scoring-Systeme kann die Testgute bildgebender Verfahren in der Diagnostik der Riesenzellarteriitis erhohen. Bildgebende Diagnostik Die hochauflosende Sonografie der Gefaswand ist das Erstlinienverfahren in der Riesenzellarteriitis-Diagnostik, falsch positive Befunde konnen jedoch bei kardiovaskularem Risikoprofil, insbesondere bei Mannern jenseits des 70. Lebensjahres, vorkommen. Therapiekontrolle In der Therapiekontrolle ist Bildgebung unverzichtbar. Die PET-CT ist hier am besten untersucht, jedoch verbleiben Unklarheiten bezuglich der Befundinterpretation. Eine wertvolle alternative bzw. erganzende Methode stellt die Kontrastmittelsonografie dar.

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22 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ART.37715
John Charles Jennette1, Ronald Falk1, P. A. Bacon2, Neil Basu3  +25 moreInstitutions (21)
Abstract: 2012 Revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides J. Jennette;R. Falk;P. Bacon;N. Basu;M. Cid;F. Ferrario;L. Flores-Suarez;W. Gross;L. Guillevin;E. Hagen;G. Hoffman;D. Jayne;C. Kallenberg;P. Lamprecht;C. Langford;R. Luqmani;A. Mahr;E. Matteson;P. Merkel;S. Ozen;C. Pusey;N. Rasmussen;A. Rees;D. Scott;U. Specks;J. Stone;K. Takahashi;R. Watts; Arthritis & Rheumatism

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3,254 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2012-
Abstract: Jennette JC, Falk RJ, Bacon PA, Basu N, Cid MC, Ferrario F, Flores-Suarez LF, Gross WL, Guillevin L, Hagen EC, Hoffman GS, Jayne DR, Kallenberg CGM, Lamprecht P, Langford CA, Luqmani RA, Mahr AD, Matteson EL, Merkel PA, Ozen S, Pusey CD, Rasmussen N, Rees AJ, Scott DGI, Specks U, Stone JH, Takahashi K, Watts RA. Running Head:

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2,725 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/ANNRHEUMDIS-2017-212649
Abstract: To develop evidence-based recommendations for the use of imaging modalities in primary large vessel vasculitis (LVV) including giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TAK). European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) standardised operating procedures were followed. A systematic literature review was conducted to retrieve data on the role of imaging modalities including ultrasound, MRI, CT and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) in LVV. Based on evidence and expert opinion, the task force consisting of 20 physicians, healthcare professionals and patients from 10 EULAR countries developed recommendations, with consensus obtained through voting. The final level of agreement was voted anonymously. A total of 12 recommendations have been formulated. The task force recommends an early imaging test in patients with suspected LVV, with ultrasound and MRI being the first choices in GCA and TAK, respectively. CT or PET may be used alternatively. In case the diagnosis is still in question after clinical examination and imaging, additional investigations including temporal artery biopsy and/or additional imaging are required. In patients with a suspected flare, imaging might help to better assess disease activity. The frequency and choice of imaging modalities for long-term monitoring of structural damage remains an individual decision; close monitoring for aortic aneurysms should be conducted in patients at risk for this complication. All imaging should be performed by a trained specialist using appropriate operational procedures and settings. These are the first EULAR recommendations providing up-to-date guidance for the role of imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with (suspected) LVV.

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434 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3310/HTA20900
Raashid Luqmani1, Ellen Lee2, Surjeet Singh1, M Gillett2  +15 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: Background: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a relatively common form of primary systemic vasculitis, which, if left untreated, can lead to permanent sight loss. We compared ultrasound as an alternative diagnostic test with temporal artery biopsy, which may be negative in 9–61% of true cases. Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ultrasound with biopsy in diagnosing patients with suspected GCA. Design: Prospective multicentre cohort study. Setting: Secondary care. Participants: A total of 381 patients referred with newly suspected GCA. Main outcome measures: Sensitivity, specificity and cost-effectiveness of ultrasound compared with biopsy or ultrasound combined with biopsy for diagnosing GCA and interobserver reliability in interpreting scan or biopsy findings. Results: We developed and implemented an ultrasound training programme for diagnosing suspected GCA. We recruited 430 patients with suspected GCA. We analysed 381 patients who underwent both ultrasound and biopsy within 10 days of starting treatment for suspected GCA and who attended a follow-up assessment (median age 71.1 years; 72% female). The sensitivity of biopsy was 39% [95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%], which was significantly lower than previously reported and inferior to ultrasound (54%, 95% CI 48% to 60%); the specificity of biopsy (100%, 95% CI 97% to 100%) was superior to ultrasound (81%, 95% CI 73% to 88%). If we scanned all suspected patients and performed biopsies only on negative cases, sensitivity increased to 65% and specificity was maintained at 81%, reducing the need for biopsies by 43%. Strategies combining clinical judgement (clinician’s assessment at 2 weeks) with the tests showed sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 81%, respectively, for biopsy and 93% and 77%, respectively, for ultrasound; cost-effectiveness (incremental net monetary benefit) was £485 per patient in favour of ultrasound with both cost savings and a small health gain. Inter-rater analysis revealed moderate agreement among sonographers (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.75), similar to pathologists (0.62, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.76). Limitations: There is no independent gold standard diagnosis for GCA. The reference diagnosis used to determine accuracy was based on classification criteria for GCA that include clinical features at presentation and biopsy results. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the feasibility of providing training in ultrasound for the diagnosis of GCA. Our results indicate better sensitivity but poorer specificity of ultrasound compared with biopsy and suggest some scope for reducing the role of biopsy. The moderate interobserver agreement for both ultrasound and biopsy indicates scope for improving assessment and reporting of test results and challenges the assumption that a positive biopsy always represents GCA. Future work: Further research should address the issue of an independent reference diagnosis, standards for interpreting and reporting test results and the evaluation of ultrasound training, and should also explore the acceptability of these new diagnostic strategies in GCA. Funding: he National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.

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Topics: Biopsy (54%), Cost effectiveness (52%), Giant cell arteritis (50%)

240 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/RHEUMATOLOGY/KEV289
01 Jan 2016-Rheumatology
Abstract: OBJECTIVE Permanent visual impairment has been reported to occur in up to 19% of GCA patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether implementation of a fast-track approach could reduce the rate of permanent visual impairment and inpatient days of care in GCA patients. METHODS A fast-track outpatient GCA clinic (FTC) was implemented in the Department of Rheumatology, Hospital of Southern Norway Trust Kristiansand, Norway in 2012. The patients included in this study were subsequently recruited between March 2010 and October 2014. Routine clinical and laboratory data and number of inpatient days of care were collected. RESULTS During the observation period, 75 patients were diagnosed with GCA. Among the 75 GCA patients, 32 were evaluated conventionally and 43 in the FTC. In the conventionally approached group, six patients suffered from permanent visual impairment, while in the FTC group only one patient suffered from permanent visual impairment. The relative risk of permanent visual impairment in the GCA patients examined in the FTC was 88% lower compared with the conventionally evaluated group (relative risk 0.12, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.97, P = 0.01). The mean difference in inpatient days of care between patients evaluated conventionally and patients evaluated in the FTC was 3 days (3.6 vs 0.6 days, P < 0.0005). CONCLUSION The implementation of the FTC in GCA care appears to significantly reduce the risk of permanent visual impairment and is more cost effective by reducing the need for inpatient care.

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Topics: Cost effectiveness (51%)

137 Citations


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