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The difficulty of practising fine artists in making a living: why arts entrepreneurship education is important

18 Oct 2017-
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify six key reasons explaining the social phenomenon that many practitioners find it so difficult to make a living in the arts by applying two acknowledged analysis tools in strategic business management.
Abstract: This study identifies six key reasons explaining the social phenomenon that many practising fine artists find it so difficult to make a living in the arts. Due to a marked paucity of research explaining this social phenomenon, the study at hand investigates the internal factors related to artists’ personality, motivation, and skills as well as various external factors influencing artists’ working and business environment by applying two acknowledged analysis tools in strategic business management. The literature findings highlight four external threat factors mainly responsible for a very challenging working and business environment affecting practising fine artists’ chances of professional success. Consequently, two internal factors – notably artists’ motivation and ambition to conduct business and a living in the arts as well as their developed skills – turn out to be key factors to successfully deal with these external threat factors. In this context, three research aims related to practising artists’ professional education and preparation arise: the identification of crucial skills to successfully make a living in the arts as practising artists, the status of their professional education at higher education institutions (HEIs), and the capability of arts incubators as alternative education programmes to prepare large numbers of practising fine artists for professional success. The approach to investigation is exploratory and inductive with a cross-sectional survey strategy. To identify the crucial skills for professional success in the arts, surveys of up to 219 fine art lecturers, 168 fine art undergraduates, and 149 commercial galleries are conducted. To report on the status of fine artists’ educational preparation, 87 undergraduate degree programmes, 55 post-graduate programmes, and 46 extracurricular training offerings at HEIs are investigated. The study focuses mainly on the UK and Germany. These countries are selected due to their significantly different market sizes and reputation for the purpose of identifying differences in market challenges and professional preparations faced by fine artists. To analyse arts incubators’ capability in preparing large numbers of practising fine artists for a professional career, 92 arts incubation programmes around the globe are analysed and nine structured interviews with practising fine artists are conducted. The investigation of the crucial skills for fine artists’ professional success highlights in particular the development of an entrepreneurial mindset as well as of seven skills. Research on arts education shows evidence that fine art graduates are hardly equipped with this skillset and mindset due to HEIs’ lack of focus on the professional careers of practising artists. The analysis of arts incubation programmes illustrates serious limitations in supporting larger numbers of practising fine artists in their professional endeavours. The research findings stimulate the discussion in, and contribute to, knowledge in the fields of artists’ professional preparation, arts entrepreneurship, and the redesigning of fine art curriculum to purposefully prepare fine art graduates for an entrepreneurial and professional career as practising artists.
Citations
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01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the design and introduction of a new program in entrepreneurship at the University of Tasmania, where the process and responsibility of learning has largely been reversed through the process of student centred learning.
Abstract: Entrepreneurial education is the process of providing individuals with the ability to recognise commercial opportunities and the insight, self-esteem, knowledge and skills to act on them. It includes instruction in opportunity recognition, commercialising a concept, marshalling resources in the face of risk, and initiating a business venture. It also includes instruction in traditional business disciplines such as management, marketing, information systems and finance. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and introduction of a new program in Entrepreneurship at the University of Tasmania. Within this program the process and responsibility of learning has largely been reversed through the process of student centred learning. This method of learning represents a challenging departure from the traditional mainstream teaching practices. In considering the benefits achievable from this teaching method, this paper also considers the difficulties in transferring increased responsibility to students to manage their futures.

412 citations

01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, a model of desirable graduate attributes that acknowledge the importance of self-management and career building skills to lifelong career management and enhanced employability is presented, and some important considerations for the implementation of effective university career management programs are then outlined.
Abstract: Recent shifts in education and labour market policy have resulted in universities being placed under increasing pressure to produce employable graduates. However, contention exists regarding exactly what constitutes employability and which graduate attributes are required to foster employability in tertiary students. This paper argues that in the context of a rapidly changing information- and knowledge-intensive economy, employability involves far more than possession of the generic skills listed by graduate employers as attractive. Rather, for optimal economic and social outcomes, graduates must be able to proactively navigate the world of work and self-manage the career building process. A model of desirable graduate attributes that acknowledges the importance of self-management and career building skills to lifelong career management and enhanced employability is presented. Some important considerations for the implementation of effective university career management programs are then outlined.

166 citations

Book
01 Jan 1905

148 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1954
TL;DR: Perspectives on Sexuality Sex Research - an Overview Part 1.
Abstract: Perspectives on Sexuality Sex Research - an Overview Part 1. Biological Perspectives: Sexual Anatomy 1. Sexual Physiology 2. Human Reproduction 3. Birth Control 4. Abortion Part 2. Developmental Perspectives: Childhood Sexuality 5. Adolescent Sexuality 6. Adult Sexuality 7. Gender Roles Part 3. Psychological Perspectives: Loving and Being Loved 8. Intimacy and Communication Skills 9. Enhancing your Sexual Relationships 10. Sexual Orientation 11. Sexual Behaviour 12. Sexual Variations 13. Coercive Sex - the Varieties of Sexual Assault Part 4. Sexual Health Perspectives: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Infections 14. HIV Infection and AIDS 15. Sexual Dysfunctions and Sex Therapy 16. Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health Part 5 Cultural Perspectives: Sex and the Law 17. Religious and Ethical Perspectives and Sexuality

21,163 citations


"The difficulty of practising fine a..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Considering this, one of Maslow's lasting and most significant contributions to psychology is what he calls the "hierarchy of prepotency" (Maslow, 1943, p. 376, 2013, p. 85) and later “hierarchy of needs” (Maslow, 1954, p. xiii)....

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  • ...Maslow was very aware of an existing “reversal of the hierarchy” (Maslow, 1954, p. 52)....

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  • ...Maslow stresses that “their creativeness might appear not as selfactualization released by basic satisfaction, but in spite of lack of basic satisfaction” (Maslow, 1954, p. 52)....

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  • ...Historically, motivation research can be traced to the works on human instincts by Freud (1900, 1915, 1924) and the research that followed (e.g. Maslow, 1943, 1954; Deutsch and Krauss, 1965)....

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  • ...The fixed order of human needs and motivations, as illustrated in Figure 3.1-1, is, however, “not nearly so rigid” (Maslow, 1954, p. 51)....

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Book
30 Oct 1996
TL;DR: How to use this book Guided tour Preface Contributors The nature of business and management research and structure of this book and the research topic are explained.
Abstract: How to use this book Guided tour Preface Contributors 1 The nature of business and management research and structure of this book 2 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 3 Critically reviewing the literature 4 Understanding research philosophies and approaches 5 Formulating the research design 6 Negotiating access and research ethics 7 Selecting samples 8 Using secondary data 9 Collecting primary data through observation 10 Collecting primary data using semi-structured, in-depth and group interviews 11 Collecting primary data using questionnaires 12 Analysing quantitative data 13 Analysing qualitative data 14 Writing and presenting your project report Appendices Glossary Index

19,739 citations

Book
01 Jan 1991
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the literature and conduct ethical studies in social research and the politics of social research in the context of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, and concluded that the need for qualitative and quantitative data is critical for social science research.
Abstract: IN THIS SECTION: 1.) BRIEF 2.) COMPREHENSIVE BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS Part I Foundations Chapter 1 Why Do Research? Chapter 2 What Are the Major Types of Social Research? Chapter 3 Theory and Research Chapter 4 The Meanings of Methodology Chapter 5 How to Review the Literature and Conduct Ethical Studies Part II Planning and Preparation Chapter 6 Strategies of Research Design Chapter 7 Qualitative and Quantitative Measurement Chapter 8 Qualitative and Quantitative Sampling Part III Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis Chapter 9 Experimental Research Chapter 10 Survey Research Chapter 11 Nonreactive Research and Secondary Analysis Chapter 12 Analysis of Quantitative Data Part IV Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis Chapter 13 Field Research and Focus Group Research Chapter 14 Historical-Comparative Research Chapter 15 Analysis of Qualitative Data Part V Communicating with Others Chapter 16 Writing the Research Report and the Politics of Social Research COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS Part I Foundations Chapter 1 Why Do Research? Alternatives to Social Science Research What Research Involves: A Scientific Approach Varieties of Social Research Steps in the Research Process Why Learn How to Conduct Social Research Chapter 2 What Are the Major Types of Social Research? Use and Audience of Research Purpose of Research Within or Across Case Single or Multiple Points in Time Data Collection Techniques Chapter 3 Theory and Research What Is Theory? Social Theory versus Ideology The Parts of Theory Chapter 4 The Meanings of Methodology Philosophical Foundations The Three Approaches Positivist Social Science Interpretative Social Science Critical Social Science Feminist and Postmodern Research Chapter 5 How to Review the Literature and Conduct Ethical Studies The Literature Review Ethics in Social Research Part II Planning and Preparation Chapter 6 Strategies of Research Design Triangulation Qualitative and Quantitative Orientations Toward Research Qualitative Design Issues Quantitative Design Issues Chapter 7 Qualitative and Quantitative Measurement The Need for Measurement Quanitative and Qualtitative Measurement The Measurement Process Reliability and Validity A Guide to Quantitative Measurement Scales and Indexes Chapter 8 Qualitative and Quantitative Sampling Reasons for Sampling Sampling Strategies Part III Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis Chapter 9 Experimental Research Appropriate Technique A Short History of the Experiment Random Assignment Experimental Design Logic Internal and External Validity Practical Considerations Results of Experimental Research: Making Comparisons A Word on Ethics Chapter 10 Survey Research A History of Survey Research The Logic of Survey Research Construction of the Questionnaire Types of Surveys: Advantages and Disadvantages Survey Interviewing The Ethical Survey Chapter 11 Nonreactive Research and Secondary Analysis Nonreactive Measurement Content Analysis Existing Statistics/Documents and Secondary Analysis Secondary Analysis of Survey Data Issues of Inference and Theory Testing Ethical Concerns Chapter 12 Analysis of Quantitative Data Dealing with Data Results with One Variable Results with Two Variables More than Two Variables Inferential Statistics Part IV Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis Chapter 13 Field Research and Focus Group Research Understanding Field Research The Field Research Interview Data Quality Ethical Dilemmas of Field Research Focus Group Research Chapter 14 Historical-Comparative Research A Short History of Historical-Comparative Research Research Questions Appropriate for Historical-Comparative Research The Logic of Historical-Comparative Research Steps in Conducting a Historical-Comparative Research Project Data and Evidence in Historical Context Comparative Research Equivalence in Historical-Comparative Research Ethics Chapter 15 Analysis of Qualitative Data Comparison of Methods of Data Analysis Coding and Concept Formation Analytic Strategies for Qualitative Data Other Techniques Part V Communicating with Others Chapter 16 Writing the Research Report and the Politics of Social Research The Research Report The Politics of Social Research Objectivity and Value Freedom Appendix: Table of Randomly Selected Five Digit Numbers Bibliography Name Index Subject Index

18,682 citations


"The difficulty of practising fine a..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It is exploratory and inductive in order to describe the picture of the social phenomenon of business fine artists’ professional and entrepreneurial situation that is being studied and to build abstract ideas, derived from experience based on detailed observations of the world (Neuman, 2003; Lodico et al., 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, evidence from past research and insights from an exploratory investigation are combined in a conceptual model that defines and relates price, perceived quality, and perceived value for a product.
Abstract: Evidence from past research and insights from an exploratory investigation are combined in a conceptual model that defines and relates price, perceived quality, and perceived value. Propositions ab...

13,713 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although mental disorders are widespread, serious cases are concentrated among a relatively small proportion of cases with high comorbidity, as shown in the recently completed US National Comorbidities Survey Replication.
Abstract: Background Little is known about the general population prevalence or severity of DSM-IV mental disorders. Objective To estimate 12-month prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse control, and substance disorders in the recently completed US National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Design and Setting Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted between February 2001 and April 2003 using a fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants Nine thousand two hundred eighty-two English-speaking respondents 18 years and older. Main Outcome Measures Twelve-month DSM-IV disorders. Results Twelve-month prevalence estimates were anxiety, 18.1%; mood, 9.5%; impulse control, 8.9%; substance, 3.8%; and any disorder, 26.2%. Of 12-month cases, 22.3% were classified as serious; 37.3%, moderate; and 40.4%, mild. Fifty-five percent carried only a single diagnosis; 22%, 2 diagnoses; and 23%, 3 or more diagnoses. Latent class analysis detected 7 multivariate disorder classes, including 3 highly comorbid classes representing 7% of the population. Conclusion Although mental disorders are widespread, serious cases are concentrated among a relatively small proportion of cases with high comorbidity.

10,951 citations