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Journal ArticleDOI

The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research.

01 Jun 1968-Social Forces-Vol. 46, Iss: 4, pp 555

About: This article is published in Social Forces.The article was published on 1968-06-01. It has received 44782 citation(s) till now. The article focuses on the topic(s): Grounded theory & Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Kathleen M. Eisenhardt1Institutions (1)
Abstract: �Traditional, hierarchical views of leadership are less and less useful given the complexities of our modern world. Leadership theory must transition to new perspectives that account for the complex adaptive needs of organizations. In this paper, we propose that leadership (as opposed to leaders) can be seen as a complex dynamic process that emerges in the interactive “spaces between” people and ideas. That is, leadership is a dynamic that transcends the capabilities of individuals alone; it is the product of interaction, tension, and exchange rules governing changes in perceptions and understanding. We label this a dynamic of adaptive leadership, and we show how this dynamic provides important insights about the nature of leadership and its outcomes in organizational fields. We define a leadership event as a perceived segment of action whose meaning is created by the interactions of actors involved in producing it, and we present a set of innovative methods for capturing and analyzing these contextually driven processes. We provide theoretical and practical implications of these ideas for organizational behavior and organization and management theory.

22,211 citations


Egon G. Guba1, Yvonna S. LincolnInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 1994-
Abstract: This is likewise one of the factors by obtaining the soft documents of this competing paradigms in qualitative research by online. You might not require more become old to spend to go to the books establishment as skillfully as search for them. In some cases, you likewise do not discover the broadcast competing paradigms in qualitative research that you are looking for. It will totally squander the time.

15,047 citations


Book
01 Jan 1989-
Abstract: IN THIS SECTION: 1.) BRIEF 2.) COMPREHENSIVE BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS: Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Designing Qualitative Research Chapter 3: Ethical Issues Chapter 4: A Dramaturgical Look at Interviewing Chapter 5: Focus Group Interviewing Chapter 6: Ethnographic Field Strategies Chapter 7: Action Research Chapter 8: Unobtrusive Measures in Research Chapter 9: Social Historical Research and Oral Traditions Chapter 10: Case Studies Chapter 11: An Introduction to Content Analysis Chapter 12: Writing Research Papers: Sorting the Noodles from the Soup COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS: Chapter 1: Introduction Quantitative Versus Qualitative Schools of Thought Use of Triangulation in Research Methodology Qualitative Strategies: Defining an Orientation From a Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Why Use Qualitative Methods? A Plan of Presentation Chapter 2: Designing Qualitative Research Theory and Concepts Ideas and Theory Reviewing the Literature Evaluating Web Sites Content versus Use Theory, Reality, and the Social World Framing Research Problems Operationalization and Conceptualization Designing Projects Data Collection and Organization Data Storage, Retrieval, and Analysis Dissemination Trying It Out Chapter 3: Ethical Issues Research Ethics in Historical Perspective From Guidelines to Law: Regulations on the Research Process Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) Ethical Codes Some Common Ethical Concerns in Behavioral Research New Areas for Ethical Concern: Cyberspace Informed Consent and Implied Consent Confidentiality and Anonymity Securing the Data Objectivity and Careful Research Design Trying It Out Chapter 4: A Dramaturgical Look at Interviewing Dramaturgy and Interviewing Types of Interviews The Data Collection Instrument Guideline Development Communicating Effectively A Few Common Problems in Question Formulation Pretesting the Schedule Long Versus Short Interviews Telephone Interviews Computer Assisted Interviewing Conducting an Interview: A Natural or an Unnatural Communication? The Dramaturgical Interview The Interviewer's Repertoire Know Your Audience Analyzing Data Obtained from the Dramaturgical Interview Trying It Out Chapter 5: Focus Group Interviewing What are Focus Groups? Working With a Group The Evolution of Focus Group Interviews Facilitating Focus Group Dynamics: How Focus Groups Work The Moderator's Guide Basic Ingredients in Focus Groups Analyzing Focus Group Data Confidentiality and Focus Group Interviews Recent Trends in Focus Groups: Online Focus Groups Trying It Out Chapter 6: Ethnographic Field Strategies Accessing a Field Setting: Getting In Reflectivity and Ethnography Critical Ethnography Becoming Invisible Other Dangers During Ethnographic Research Watching, Listening, and Learning How to Learn: What to Watch and Listen For Computers and Ethnography OnLine Ethnography Analyzing Ethnographic Data Other Analysis Strategies: Typologies, Sociograms, and Metaphors Disengaging: Getting Out Trying It Out Chapter 7: Action Research The Basics of Action Research Identifying the Research Question(s) Gathering the Information to Answer the Question(s) Analyzing and Interpreting the Information Sharing the Results with the Participants When to Use and When Not to Use Action Research The Action Researcher's Role Types of Action Research Photovoice and Action Research Action Research: A Reiteration Trying It Out Chapter 8: Unobtrusive Measures in Research Archival Strategies Physical Erosion and accretion: Human Traces as Data Sources Trying It Out Chapter 9: Social Historical Research and Oral Traditions What Is Historical Research? Life Histories and Social History What Are the Sources of Data for Historical Researchers? Doing Historiography: Tracing Written History as Data What Are Oral Histories? Trying It Out Chapter 10: Case Studies The Nature of Case Studies Theory and Case Studies The Individual Case Study Intrinsic, Instrumental, and Collective Case Studies Case Study Design Types Designing Case Studies The Scientific Benefit of Case Studies Case Studies of Organizations Case Studies of Communities Trying It Out Chapter 11: An Introduction to Content Analysis What is Content Analysis? Analysis of Qualitative Data Content Analysis as a Technique Content Analysis: Quantitative or Qualitative? Communication Components What to Count: Levels and Units of Analysis Category Development: Building Grounded Theory Discourse Analysis and Content Analysis Open Coding Coding Frames Stages in the Content Analysis Process Strengths and Weaknesses of the Content Analysis Process Computers and Qualitative Analysis Qualitative Research at the Speed of Light Trying It Out Chapter 12: Writing Research Papers: Sorting the Noodles from the Soup Plagiarism: What It Is, Why It's Bad, and How to Avoid It Identifying the Purpose of the Writing: Arranging the Noodles Delineating a Supportive Structure: Visual Signals for the Reader Terms and Conditions Presenting Research Material A Word About the Content of Papers and Articles Write It, Rewrite It, Then Write It Again! A Few Writing Hints A Final Note

14,354 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The research strategy of theory building from cases, particularly multiple cases, involves using one or more cases to create theoretical constructs, propositions, and/or midrange theory from case-based, empirical evidence.
Abstract: This article discusses the research strategy of theory building from cases, particularly multiple cases. Such a strategy involves using one or more cases to create theoretical constructs, propositions, and/or midrange theory from case-based, empirical evidence. Replication logic means that each case serves as a distinct experiment that stands on its own merits as an analytic unit. The frequent use of case studies as a research strategy has given rise to some challenges that can be mitigated by the use of very precise wording and thoughtful research design.

11,811 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Greg Guest1, Arwen Bunce1, Laura Johnson1Institutions (1)
01 Feb 2006-Field Methods
TL;DR: The authors operationalize saturation and make evidence-based recommendations regarding nonprobabilistic sample sizes for interviews and found that saturation occurred within the first twelve interviews, although basic elements for metathemes were present as early as six interviews.
Abstract: Guidelines for determining nonprobabilistic sample sizes are virtually nonexistent. Purposive samples are the most commonly used form of nonprobabilistic sampling, and their size typically relies on the concept of “saturation,” or the point at which no new information or themes are observed in the data. Although the idea of saturation is helpful at the conceptual level, it provides little practical guidance for estimating sample sizes, prior to data collection, necessary for conducting quality research. Using data from a study involving sixty in-depth interviews with women in two West African countries, the authors systematically document the degree of data saturation and variability over the course of thematic analysis. They operationalize saturation and make evidence-based recommendations regarding nonprobabilistic sample sizes for interviews. Based on the data set, they found that saturation occurred within the first twelve interviews, although basic elements for metathemes were present as early as six...

10,698 citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202226
20211,415
20201,590
20191,737
20181,903
20172,313