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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TG.2018.2834566

The Dota 2 Bot Competition.

Abstract: Multiplayer Online Battle Area (MOBA) games are a recent huge success both in the video game industry and the international eSports scene. These games encourage team coordination and cooperation, short and long-term planning, within a real-time combined action and strategy gameplay. Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence in Games research competitions offer a wide variety of challenges regarding the study and application of AI techniques to different game genres. These events are widely accepted by the AI/CI community as a sort of AI benchmarking that strongly influences many other research areas in the field. This paper presents and describes in detail the Dota 2 Bot competition and the Dota 2 AI framework that supports it. This challenge aims to join both, MOBAs and AI/CI game competitions, inviting participants to submit AI controllers for the successful MOBA \textit{Defense of the Ancients 2} (Dota 2) to play in 1v1 matches, which aims for fostering research on AI techniques for real-time games. The Dota 2 AI framework makes use of the actual Dota 2 game modding capabilities to enable to connect external AI controllers to actual Dota 2 game matches using the original Free-to-Play this http URL of the actual Dota 2 game modding capabilities to enable to connect external AI controllers to actual Dota 2 game matches using the original Free-to-Play game.

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Topics: Video game (58%)

6 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CMA.2020.113207
Tao Zhang1, Yu Li1, Yiteng Li1, Shuyu Sun1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: In this paper, the first self-adaptive deep learning algorithm is proposed in details to accelerate flash calculations, which can quantitatively predict the total number of phases in the mixture and related thermodynamic properties at equilibrium for realistic reservoir fluids with a large number of components under various environmental conditions. A thermodynamically consistent scheme for phase equilibrium calculation is adopted and implemented at specified moles, volume and temperature, and the flash results are used as the ground truth for training and testing the deep neural network. The critical properties of each component are considered as the input features of the neural network and the final output is the total number of phases at equilibrium and the molar compositions in each phase. Two network structures are well designed, one of which transforms the input of various numbers of components in the training and the objective fluid mixture into a unified space before entering the productive neural network. “Ghost components” are defined and introduced to process the data padding work in order to modify the dimension of input flash calculation data to meet the training and testing requirements of the target fluid mixture. Hyperparameters on both two neural networks are carefully tuned in order to ensure the physical correlations underneath the input parameters are preserved properly through the learning process. This combined structure can make our deep learning algorithm to be self-adaptive to the change of input components and dimensions. Furthermore, two Softmax functions are used in the last layer to enforce the constraint that the summation of mole fractions in each phase is equal to 1. An example is presented that the flash calculation results of a 8-component Eagle Ford oil is used as input to estimate the phase equilibrium state of a 14-component Eagle Ford oil. The results are satisfactory with very small estimation errors. The capability of the proposed deep learning algorithm is also verified that simultaneously completes phase stability test and phase splitting calculation. Remarks are concluded at the end to provide some guidance for further research in this direction, especially the potential application of newly developed neural network models.

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19 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ACA.2021.338403
Abstract: The last 10 years have witnessed the growth of artificial intelligence into different research areas, emerging as a vibrant discipline with the capacity to process large amounts of information and even intuitively interact with humans. In the chemical world, these innovations in both hardware and algorithms have allowed the development of revolutionary approaches in organic synthesis, drug discovery, and materials' design. Despite these advances, the use of AI to support analytical purposes has been mostly limited to data-intensive methodologies linked to image recognition, vibrational spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry but not to other technologies that, albeit simpler, offer promise of greatly enhanced analytics now that AI is becoming mature enough to take advantage of them. To address the imminent opportunity of analytical chemists to use AI, this tutorial review aims to serve as a first step for junior researchers considering integrating AI into their programs. Thus, basic concepts related to AI are first discussed followed by a critical assessment of representative reports integrating AI with various sensors, spectroscopies, and separation techniques. For those with the courage (and the time) needed to get started, the review also provides a general sequence of steps to begin integrating AI into their programs.

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12 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BRAINSCI10060396
20 Jun 2020-Brain Sciences
Abstract: Biological and artificial intelligence (AI) are often defined by their capacity to achieve a hierarchy of short-term and long-term goals that require incorporating information over time and space at both local and global scales. More advanced forms of this capacity involve the adaptive modulation of integration across scales, which resolve computational inefficiency and explore-exploit dilemmas at the same time. Research in neuroscience and AI have both made progress towards understanding architectures that achieve this. Insight into biological computations come from phenomena such as decision inertia, habit formation, information search, risky choices and foraging. Across these domains, the brain is equipped with mechanisms (such as the dorsal anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) that can represent and modulate across scales, both with top-down control processes and by local to global consolidation as information progresses from sensory to prefrontal areas. Paralleling these biological architectures, progress in AI is marked by innovations in dynamic multiscale modulation, moving from recurrent and convolutional neural networks—with fixed scalings—to attention, transformers, dynamic convolutions, and consciousness priors—which modulate scale to input and increase scale breadth. The use and development of these multiscale innovations in robotic agents, game AI, and natural language processing (NLP) are pushing the boundaries of AI achievements. By juxtaposing biological and artificial intelligence, the present work underscores the critical importance of multiscale processing to general intelligence, as well as highlighting innovations and differences between the future of biological and artificial intelligence.

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2 Citations

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.24251/HICSS.2020.035
07 Jan 2020-
Abstract: Recent advances in artificial intelligence have demonstrated that the future of work will be defined by collaborative human-machine teams. In order to be effective, human-machine teams will rely on context-aware systems to enable collaboration. In this paper, we present three lessons learned from the past five years of developing context-aware systems that we believe will improve future system design. First, that semantic activity must captured, modeled, and analyzed to enable reasoning across missions, actors, and content. Second, that context-aware systems require multiple, federated data stores to optimize system and team performance. Finally, that real-time inter-actor communications are the essential feature enabling adaptation. We close with a discussion of the influences and implications that these lessons have on human-machine teaming, and outline future research activities that will be necessary before operationalizing

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2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2021/6698231
Huale Li1, Cao Rui1, Xuan Wang1, Xiaohan Hou1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
13 Jul 2021-Complexity
Abstract: In recent years, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) achieves great success in many fields, especially in the field of games, such as AlphaGo, AlphaZero, and AlphaStar. However, due to the reward sparsity problem, the traditional DRL-based method shows limited performance in 3D games, which contain much higher dimension of state space. To solve this problem, in this paper, we propose an intrinsic-based policy optimization (IBPO) algorithm for reward sparsity. In the IBPO, a novel intrinsic reward is integrated into the value network, which provides an additional reward in the environment with sparse reward, so as to accelerate the training. Besides, to deal with the problem of value estimation bias, we further design three types of auxiliary tasks, which can evaluate the state value and the action more accurately in 3D scenes. Finally, a framework of auxiliary intrinsic-based policy optimization (AIBPO) is proposed, which improves the performance of the IBPO. The experimental results show that the method is able to deal with the reward sparsity problem effectively. Therefore, the proposed method may be applied to real-world scenarios, such as 3-dimensional navigation and automatic driving, which can improve the sample utilization to reduce the cost of interactive sample collected by the real equipment.

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Topics: Reinforcement learning (57%)


15 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE16961
David Silver1, Aja Huang1, Chris J. Maddison1, Arthur Guez1  +16 moreInstitutions (1)
28 Jan 2016-Nature
Abstract: The game of Go has long been viewed as the most challenging of classic games for artificial intelligence owing to its enormous search space and the difficulty of evaluating board positions and moves. Here we introduce a new approach to computer Go that uses ‘value networks’ to evaluate board positions and ‘policy networks’ to select moves. These deep neural networks are trained by a novel combination of supervised learning from human expert games, and reinforcement learning from games of self-play. Without any lookahead search, the neural networks play Go at the level of stateof-the-art Monte Carlo tree search programs that simulate thousands of random games of self-play. We also introduce a new search algorithm that combines Monte Carlo simulation with value and policy networks. Using this search algorithm, our program AlphaGo achieved a 99.8% winning rate against other Go programs, and defeated the human European Go champion by 5 games to 0. This is the first time that a computer program has defeated a human professional player in the full-sized game of Go, a feat previously thought to be at least a decade away.

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Topics: Monte Carlo tree search (70%), Computer Go (67%), Game mechanics (63%) ... read more

10,555 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TCIAIG.2013.2286295
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the existing work on AI for real-time strategy (RTS) games. Specifically, we focus on the work around the game StarCraft, which has emerged in the past few years as the unified test bed for this research. We describe the specific AI challenges posed by RTS games, and overview the solutions that have been explored to address them. Additionally, we also present a summary of the results of the recent StarCraft AI competitions, describing the architectures used by the participants. Finally, we conclude with a discussion emphasizing which problems in the context of RTS game AI have been solved, and which remain open.

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372 Citations

Open accessProceedings Article
12 Feb 2016-
Abstract: The General Video Game AI framework and competition pose the problem of creating artificial intelligence that can play a wide, and in principle unlimited, range of games. Concretely, it tackles the problem of devising an algorithm that is able to play any game it is given, even if the game is not known a priori. This area of study can be seen as an approximation of General Artificial Intelligence, with very little room for game-dependent heuristics. This short paper summarizes the motivation, infrastructure, results and future plans of General Video Game AI, stressing the findings and first conclusions drawn after two editions of our competition, and outlining our future plans.

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Topics: General video game playing (74%), Game design (69%), Game Developer (68%) ... read more

159 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TCIAIG.2014.2339221
Abstract: This paper attempts to give a high-level overview of the field of artificial and computational intelligence (AI/CI) in games, with particular reference to how the different core research areas within this field inform and interact with each other, both actually and potentially. We identify ten main research areas within this field: NPC behavior learning, search and planning, player modeling, games as AI benchmarks, procedural content generation, computational narrative, believable agents, AI-assisted game design, general game artificial intelligence and AI in commercial games. We view and analyze the areas from three key perspectives: 1) the dominant AI method(s) used under each area; 2) the relation of each area with respect to the end (human) user; and 3) the placement of each area within a human–computer (player-game) interaction perspective. In addition, for each of these areas we consider how it could inform or interact with each of the other areas; in those cases where we find that meaningful interaction either exists or is possible, we describe the character of that interaction and provide references to published studies, if any. We believe that this paper improves understanding of the current nature of the game AI/CI research field and the interdependences between its core areas by providing a unifying overview. We also believe that the discussion of potential interactions between research areas provides a pointer to many interesting future research projects and unexplored subfields.

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156 Citations

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.4230/DFU.VOL6.12191.85
Marc Ebner1, John Levine, Simon M. Lucas2, Tom Schaul3  +2 moreInstitutions (5)
12 Nov 2013-
Abstract: As participants in this Dagstuhl session address the challenge of General Video Game Playing (GVGP), we have recognised the need to create a Video Game Description Language (VGDL). Unlike General Game Playing, we have envisioned GVGP will not require a prescribed language to facilitate understanding of the logic of the game: requiring the computational agent to ascertain these facts for itself. However, we would still require means to define the wide range of problems the GVGP agents may face for the purpose of classification. Not only would such a language provide means to encapsulate the features and mechanics of a game for the purposes of human understanding, but also provide context for the evaluation of GVGP agents having completed playing. Outside of the issues of classification, there is also the opportunity for automatic game generation. Given the intent of the GVGP group to work within a framework akin to the one of the Physical Travelling Salesman Problem (PTSP), we aim to attach a code-base to the VGDL compiler that derives implementations of these games from the definition that can be used in conjunction with GVGP. Implementing such a compiler could provide numerous opportunities; users could modify existing games very quickly, or have a library of existing implementations defined within the language (e.g. an Asteroids ship or a Mario avatar) that have pre-existing, parameterised behaviours that can be customised for the users specific purposes. Provided the language is fit for purpose, automatic game creation could be explored further through experimentation with machine learning algorithms, furthering research in game creation and design. In order for both of these perceived functions to be realised and to ensure it is suitable for a large user base we recognise that the language carries several key requirements. Not only must it be human-readable, but retain the capability to be both expressive and extensible whilst equally simple as it is general. In our preliminary discussions, we sought to define the key requirements and challenges in constructing a new VGDL that will become part of the GVGP process. From this we have proposed an initial design to the semantics of the language and the components required to define a given game. Furthermore, we applied this approach to represent classic games such as Space Invaders, Lunar Lander and Frogger in an attempt to identify potential problems that may come to light. In summary, our group has agreed on a series of preliminary language components and started to experiment with forms of implementation for both the language and the attached framework. In future we aim to realise the potential of the VGDL for the purposes of Procedural Content Generation, Automatic Game Design and Transfer Learning and how the roadmap for GVGP can provide opportunities for these areas.

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Topics: Game design (70%), Game Developer (69%), General video game playing (69%) ... read more

105 Citations

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