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Journal ArticleDOI

The effect of heat shock and timing on the induction of tetraploidy in Catfish, Heteropnestus fossilis

02 Apr 2020-Journal of Applied Aquaculture (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 32, Iss: 2, pp 186-192
TL;DR: The result indicates that the window time to start the heat shock treatment for maximum tetraploid induction is 25 to 27 min after fertilization at an ambient water temperature of 27°C, which indicates that Tetraploids form the main source for the induction of higher ploidy levels.
Abstract: This research aims to discover the right physiological age of fertilized egg for tetraploid induction and the parameters of heat shock treatment in Heteropnestus fossilis. The heat shock parameters...
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Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a triploidy was induced in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri when fertilized eggs were immersed in 36 C water for 1 minute, and tetraploids were produced by treatments 5 hours after fertilization.
Abstract: Abstract Polyploidy was induced in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri when fertilized eggs were immersed in 36 C water for 1 minute. Triploids were produced if the eggs were treated 10 minutes after fertilization; tetraploids were produced by treatments 5 hours after fertilization. Sterile triploid trout and salmon potentially could grow and survive better than normal fish at sexual maturation. Heat-shock techniques also should be useful in the production of gynogenetic diploid trout and salmon for biological studies and breeding programs.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The evidence supporting the large-scale production of tetraploid turbot progenies is provided, thus encouraging further research on the subject.
Abstract: Tetraploid fish are the key source of diploid gametes in polyploid breeding, and they can be induced by disrupting the first mitotic cell cleavage. In this study, the induction protocol of tetraploid by hydrostatic pressure shock and the viability of the tetraploid progenies were investigated in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. Under water temperature of 14.5 ± 0.5 °C, fertilized diploid zygotes were treated by different combination of timing (65–90 min after fertilization, maf), pressure intensity (60–85 MPa), and duration (2–10 min), respectively. Ploidy level was determined by silver staining of NOR regions, karyotype analysis, and flow cytometry. The optimal protocol for the pressure shock induction was determined to be the combination of timing of 80 maf, 75 MPa of hydrostatic pressure, and 6 min of duration time. Two batches of tetraploid-induced progenies with a total of more than 73,000 morphologically normal larvae were produced. The hatching rates and tetraploidy rates of the two induction groups were 8.97% and 4.09% and 53.33% and 46.67% at 1 day after hatching (dah), respectively. At 150 dah, 1 out of 20 juveniles was identified as tetraploid by karyotype analysis. However, none of tetraploid juveniles was detected by the flow cytometry analysis among the 446 juveniles survived at 365 dah. This preliminary study provides the evidence supporting the large-scale production of tetraploid turbot progenies, thus encouraging further research on the subject.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2021-Zygote
TL;DR: The results showed that the post-shock temperature affects the parameters analyzed and, therefore, must be considered for optimization of the production of tetraploid in A. altiparanae.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate different post-shock temperatures for tetraploid induction in the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae. Newly fertilized eggs were divided into four groups, three were submitted to heat shock (40°C for 2 min) at 24 min post-fertilization (mpf) and another group remained without shock (control). Groups submitted to temperature shock were further separated at the following temperatures: 22°C, 26°C and 28°C. Survival among embryonic development was counted and at hatching the ploidy was analyzed by flow cytometry. The results showed that the post-shock temperature affects the parameters analyzed and, therefore, must be considered for optimization of the production of tetraploid in A. altiparanae. Those data are innovative and could be used in future studies of basic biology in this species.

1 citations


Cites background from "The effect of heat shock and timing..."

  • ...Most of the previous studies have focused on the evaluation of timing to initiate shock (Zhu et al., 2017), its intensity (Hartono et al., 2016) and duration (Christopher et al., 2019)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The advantages and challenges of polyploidy, and its evolutionary potential, are considered.
Abstract: Polyploids — organisms that have multiple sets of chromosomes — are common in certain plant and animal taxa, and can be surprisingly stable. The evidence that has emerged from genome analyses also indicates that many other eukaryotic genomes have a polyploid ancestry, suggesting that both humans and most other eukaryotes have either benefited from or endured polyploidy. Studies of polyploids soon after their formation have revealed genetic and epigenetic interactions between redundant genes. These interactions can be related to the phenotypes and evolutionary fates of polyploids. Here, I consider the advantages and challenges of polyploidy, and its evolutionary potential.

1,882 citations


"The effect of heat shock and timing..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Although some of these changes are potentially advantageous, many cause instability of the neopolyploids and might be disruptive (Comai 2005) all these factors can bring low survival in tetraploids....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In fish, pre-embryonic events such as insemination, second polar body extrusion and first mitotic cleavage are manipulable and render 37 different types of ploidy induction possible, and the need for confirmation of genetic purity of mitotic gynogens by one or more methods is emphasized.
Abstract: In fish, pre-embryonic events such as insemination, second polar body extrusion and first mitotic cleavage are manipulable and render 37 different types of ploidy induction possible. A classification of physical, chemical, and biological inductors of ploidy is provided. The amazing ability of fish to tolerate genomes from haploid to heptaploid, genomic contributions from the male or female parent alone, and unequal contributions from parents belonging to the same or different species is highlighted; surprisingly, a single species is amenable for 8–12 different types of ploidy induction. Advantages and limitations of different methods and live or preserved tissues for ploidy confirmation are assessed. Live haploids have been induced in Oreochromis mossambicus. With an ability to synthesize rRNAs and metabolic enzymes such as LDH, the haploid embryos are capable of normal translation and transcription, but suffer mass mortality at hatching, perhaps due to expression of lethal mutant genes. Induction of gynogenesis involves egg activation by irradiated homologous or heterologous sperm, and diploidization by retention of the second polar body (meiotic gynogenesis), or suppression of the first mitotic cleavage (mitotic gynogenesis). UV-irradiation inactivates sperm DNA maximally and avoids chromosome fragmentation. Egg activation by UV-irradiated heterologous sperm under dark conditions, and diploidization by pressure shock result in the highest survival of gynogens; meiotic gynogens survive better than mitotic gynogens. The need for confirmation of genetic purity of mitotic gynogens by one or more methods is emphasized. In different species, survival, growth and fertility improve when gynogens are generated successively for two or more generations. Combinations of induction of ploidy and hormonal sex reversal in gynogens renders the scope for generating all-male or all-female populations. In some gynogenetic species genetic homozygosity leads to growth suppression from 3 to 60% however, meiotic gynogens of Clarias macrocephalus and Paralicthys olivaceus display 18 and 35% faster growth. Hypotheses for the unexpected occurrence of males among natural and artificially induced gynogenetic populations are assessed. In a few species, reproductive performance of gynogens is not equivalent to normal females. Maximal elimination of egg genome by UV-radiation, induction of androgenesis using 2n sperm of a tetraploid, facilitation of dispermy using heterologous eggs, and activation by cryopreserved sperm are land-mark events in the history of androgenesis. In male-heterogametic species, androgenesis may produce supermales to establish broodstock for consistent production of all-male populations. In combination with cryopreservation of sperm, androgenesis may prove to be the best method for conservation of fish genomes. As many as 11 different types of triploids are inducible; and most of them require the retention of the second polar body. The yield and survival of triploids are higher than those of gynogens and these values decrease with the kind of inductor used in the following order: pressure < cold < heat shock. Usually triploidy confers sterility, especially in females, and accelerates growth during post-maturation, when reared solitarily in some (Tinca tinca, Oreochromis Mossambicus) or communally (with diploids) in other species (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The presence of two sets of maternal chromosomes does not disturb the manifestation of morphological sexual characters; however, unexpected sex ratios observed in some triploids indicate a preponderance of females in natural populations and a dominance of males in artificially induced populations. In some species, a certain percentage of female triploids are fertile. Possible pathways, through which the natural fertile triploids may form the base for evolution of tetraploids and origin of diploid new species are suggested. Triploids, especially females, suffer delayed maturity, a low gonado-somatic index, and disrupted gametogenesis due to cytogenetic and endocrine incompatibilities; males do not suffer endocrine incompatibility. Three possible pathways, through which oogenesis may be completed in these fertile triploid species, are indicated. Triploid hybridization between salmonids, which can tolerate salinity changes (e.g. chum and pink salmons) and which cannot tolerate early transfer to sea water but are desired for their meat quality (e.g. Atlantic, chinook and coho salmons) is commercially important. Triploid conspecific salmonids grow faster than diploid conspecifics or triploid hybrids. Protocols for the combination of induced ploidy and hormonal sex reversal to generate all-male, all-female or all-sterile triploid populations are described. In triploids, the increase in nuclear DNA per cell is 1.3 to 1.7 times that of diploids, which results in corresponding volumetric increase of a cell. This, in turn, imposes corresponding decreases in total cell surface area and cell number of a tissue or a triploid individual; however, such a decrease in cell surface area does not impair metabolic processes like oxygen uptake and food utilization. Data for effective temperature required to induce cold or heat shock to retain the second polar body suggest that an elevation of 18, 15 and 14 °C successfully retains the polar body in salmonids, cyprinids and cichlids; the corresponding values for the depression of temperature are 11, 19 and 21 °C, respectively. Seven different kinds of tetraploidy are inducible; however, live, feeding tetraploids have been induced in ten species only. Causes for embryonic or post-embryonic mortality of tetraploids are discussed. Increasing maternal genomic contribution and heterologous insemination appear to enhance tetraploid survival. Survival and growth of Oncorhynchus mykiss progressively improve in F1 and F2 tetraploid progenies. In a rare strain of the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, pentaploids, hexaploids and heptaploids have been successfully induced. An individual polyploid loach (3n) simultaneously spawns small, intermediate and large eggs carrying n, 2n and 3n genomes. It is not clear how during oogenesis the passage of n, 2n and 3n genomes is regulated into small, intermediate and large eggs. However, evidence from other fish species is accumulating for the simultaneous production of at least two kinds of eggs by a single female. Studies on ploidy induction have shown the magnitude of the complicated genetic mechanisms that control sex determination in fish.

285 citations


"The effect of heat shock and timing..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Tetraploid mammals and birds are not viable and are known not to tolerate critical changes in the genome cytoplasmic ratio as that of amphibians and fish (Pandian and Koteeswaran 1998)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work has shown that it is possible to suppress the first mitotic division offish eggs with high-pressure or -temperature treatments applied at the time of first cleavage to produce mitotic gynogenetic diploids and tetraploids.
Abstract: Manipulation of fish chromosomes dates back to the early part of this century. The earliest experiments involved induction of gynogenesis with sperm inactivated by radiation or chemical treatments. Temperature or pressure shocks applied soon after fertilization resulted in the retention of the second polar body and reconstitution of diploidy; triploidy resulted from shocks to fish ova fertilized with normal sperm. More recently, it has been possible to suppress the first mitotic division offish eggs with high-pressure or -temperature treatments applied at the time of first cleavage to produce mitotic gynogenetic diploids and tetraploids. Androgenesis has been successfully induced in fish by irradiation of ova, fertilization of eggs with normal sperm, and suppression of the first mitosis with high-pressure treatments. Gynogenetic diploids have been used for cytogenetic studies of meiotic phenomena and gene mapping. The general finding to date is that the arrangement of genes on chromosomes is high...

246 citations


"The effect of heat shock and timing..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The induction of tetraploid is proved to be more difficult than the induction of triploid (Ihssen et al. 1990)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Retention of the second polar body in rainbow trout eggs was induced by 7000 psi early pressure shocks, which resulted in all-triploid progenies after fertilization with functional sperm, and in high yields of heterozygous diploid gynogenetic fry after insemination with gamma-irradiated sperm.

215 citations


"The effect of heat shock and timing..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Similiarly, in salmonids such treatment time for inhibition of karyokinesis results in better survival (Blanc, Chourrout, and Krieg 1987; Chourrout 1984)....

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  • ...Tetraploids form the main source for the induction of higher ploidy levels, such as triploids (Arai, Matsubara, and Suzuki 1993; Chourrout 1984), tetraploid (Arai, Matsubara, and Suzuki 1993), Pentaploids, Hexaploids and Heptaploids (Matsubara, Arai, and Suzuki 1995)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Heterozygous gynogenetic fry of common carp were produced by heat-shocking eggs, activated with UV-irradiated sperm during metaphase of the first mitosis, and the clonal nature of these strains was unequivocally demonstrated by the acceptance of reciprocally exchanged skin allografts.

197 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Komen (Komen et al. 1990) also reported a similar observation on gynogenetic carp, and named it as “female effect”....

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