scispace - formally typeset
Open accessReportDOI: 10.3386/W26822

The Effects of Professor Gender on the Post-Graduation Outcomes of Female Students

02 Mar 2021-Industrial and Labor Relations Review (SAGE PublicationsSage CA: Los Angeles, CA)-pp 001979392199483
Abstract: Although women earn approximately 50% of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) bachelor’s degrees, more than 70% of scientists and engineers are men. The authors explore a potential det...

... read more

Topics: Graduation (62%), Bachelor (56%), Occupational segregation (52%)
Citations
  More

6 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LABECO.2021.101991
Xuan Jiang1Institutions (1)
01 Jun 2021-Labour Economics
Abstract: Women are underrepresented in both STEM college majors and STEM jobs. Even with a STEM college degree, women are significantly less likely to work in STEM occupations than their male counterparts. This paper studies the determinants of the gender gap in college major choice and job choice between STEM and non-STEM fields and quantifies how much the gender wage gap can be explained by these choices using an extended Roy Model. I find that men’s ability sorting behavior is statistically stronger than women’s in major choice, yet gender differences in ability and ability sorting together explain only a small portion of the gender gap in STEM majors. The gender gap in STEM occupations cannot be explained by the gender differences in ability or ability sorting. Instead, a part of the gender gap in STEM occupations can be explained by the fact that women are more represented in less Math-intensive STEM majors and graduates from those majors are more likely to be well-matched to and to take jobs in non-STEM occupations. The other part of the gender gap in STEM occupations can be explained by women’s preference over work-life balance and women’s home location. The counterfactual analysis shows that about 13.7% of the gender wage gap among college graduates can be explained by the returns to STEM careers among the non-STEM women in the top 6.7% of the ability distribution.

... read more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1172/JCI.INSIGHT.136037
27 Feb 2020-JCI insight
Abstract: The 2018 National MD-PhD Program Outcomes Study highlighted the critical need to increase MD-PhD trainee diversity and close the gender gap in MD-PhD enrollment. This Association of American Medical Colleges imperative prompted us to evaluate trends in female matriculation from our institutional MD-PhD program compared with national data. Based on a 10-year review of Harvard/MIT Medical Scientist Training Program admissions, we observed a sharp and sustained increase in female matriculants for the past 5 years that is well above the national average. We report our experience with achieving gender parity among matriculants of our MD-PhD program, identify the specific stage of the admissions process where the gender balance acutely shifted, and attribute the increase in female matriculation to concrete administrative changes that were put into place just prior to the observed gender balance shift. These changes included increasing the number of faculty participants in application screening and awardee selection and establishing gender balance among faculty decision makers. We believe that adopting basic administrative practices geared toward increasing the diversity of perspectives among admissions faculty has the potential to expedite gender parity of MD-PhD matriculants nationwide and could eventually help achieve gender balance in the national physician-scientist workforce.

... read more

Topics: Workforce (51%)

3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ECONEDUREV.2021.102179
Amanda L. Griffith1, Joyce B. Main2Institutions (2)
Abstract: We use a dataset of first-year engineering students from a selective research-intensive public university to examine the impact of same-gender teaching assistants on course grades and major field choice. Our sample consists of students who were randomly assigned to a section of an introductory engineering course and a graduate teaching assistant. Results suggest there may be small positive effects on course grades and the probability of majoring in a high-earning field for female students assigned to a female teaching assistant. Although the difference is marginally significant, the impact of a teaching assistant gender match for female students’ choice of a high-earning field is more pronounced in classrooms with a female instructor and above-median representation of female peers. Our results show limited evidence that female teaching assistants can provide the same benefits of a female instructor in STEM fields.

... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2139/SSRN.3789018
Abstract: The underrepresentation of women in male-dominated fields of study can generate a lack of role models for female students, which may influence their career choices. This paper sheds light on this question, investigating the existence of impacts of the gender composition of instructors and peers in the Department of Economics from a selective Brazilian university. Specifically, we analyze whether having higher shares of female professors and classmates throughout undergraduate studies in Economics affects female students' labor market outcomes. We use comprehensive administrative data from the University of Sao Paulo, containing information on students' academic results and students', instructors', and course sections' characteristics. We merge these data with Brazilian labor market and firm ownership data to obtain a broad range of career outcomes, including labor force participation, occupational choices, career progression, and wages. To overcome endogeneity issues arising from students' self-selection into professors and peers, we exploit the random assignment of students in the first-semester classes and focus on mandatory courses. A higher representation of women in a male-dominated field, such as Economics, increases female students' labor force participation. Moreover, larger female faculty shares increase the probability that a female student becomes a top manager. These results suggest ways to counteract the highly discussed glass ceiling in high-earning occupations. We show that students' academic performance and elective course-choice are not driving the effects. Instead, we find suggestive evidence that higher shares of female classmates may increase the likelihood of working during undergraduate studies, leading to stronger labor market attachment.

... read more

Topics: Glass ceiling (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S41775-021-00121-W
Abstract: The implementation of the COVID-19 national lockdown announced suddenly in March 2020 in India provided a unique opportunity to capture real-time changes in business sentiments during episodes of unexpected and sudden disruptions. Using a logit-probability model to analyse data of this natural experiment showed that firms’ 6-months ahead sentiments for its financial condition worsened drastically during lockdown compared to firms surveyed immediately prior to the announcement. Further, smaller firms showed a relatively higher impact. We also find that firms perceive this as a relatively higher demand shock in terms of falling domestic sales post-lockdown whereas supply shocks are perceived to be on the downside. Lastly the mitigation strategy of firms involved reducing employment for unskilled workers and wages for skilled workers. This unique study gives insights not only about firms and their strategies but regarding appropriate policy choices during lockdown. The lessons are applicable for governments which imposed local lockdowns during the second wave and potential disruption for the expected third wave.

... read more

Topics: Demand shock (55%), Supply shock (52%), Natural experiment (50%)

References
  More

18 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/TEA.20237
Heidi B. Carlone1, Angela Johnson2Institutions (2)
Abstract: In this study, we develop a model of science identity to make sense of the science experiences of 15 successful women of color over the course of their undergraduate and graduate studies in science and into science-related careers. In our view, science identity accounts both for how women make meaning of science experiences and how society structures possible meanings. Primary data included ethnographic interviews during students' undergraduate careers, follow-up interviews 6 years later, and ongoing member-checking. Our results highlight the importance of recognition by others for women in the three science identity trajectories: research scientist; altruistic scientist; and disrupted scientist. The women with research scientist identities were passionate about science and recognized themselves and were recognized by science faculty as science people. The women with altruistic scientist identities regarded science as a vehicle for altruism and created innovative meanings of ''science,'' ''recognition by others,'' and ''woman of color in science.'' The women with disrupted scientist identities sought, but did not often receive, recognition by meaningful scientific others. Although they were ultimately successful, their trajectories were more difficult because, in part, their bids for recognition were disrupted by the interaction with gendered, ethnic, and racial factors. This study clarifies theoretical conceptions of science identity, promotes a rethinking of recruitment and retention efforts, and illuminates various ways women of color experience, make meaning of, and negotiate the culture of science. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 44: 1187-1218, 2007.

... read more

1,228 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2139/SSRN.1964782
Abstract: Our science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) workforce is crucial to America’s innovative capacity and global competitiveness. Yet women are vastly underrepresented in STEM jobs and among STEM degree holders despite making up nearly half of the U.S. workforce and half of the college-educated workforce. That leaves an untapped opportunity to expand STEM employment in the United States, even as there is wide agreement that the nation must do more to improve its competitiveness.Although women fill close to half of all jobs in the U.S. economy, they hold less than 25 percent of STEM jobs. This has been the case throughout the past decade, even as college-educated women have increased their share of the overall workforce.Women with STEM jobs earned 33 percent more than comparable women in non-STEM jobs – considerably higher than the STEM premium for men. As a result, the gender wage gap is smaller in STEM jobs than in non-STEM jobs.Women hold a disproportionately low share of STEM undergraduate degrees, particularly in engineering.Women with a STEM degree are less likely than their male counterparts to work in a STEM occupation; they are more likely to work in education or healthcare.There are many possible factors contributing to the discrepancy of women and men in STEM jobs, including: a lack of female role models, gender stereotyping, and less family-friendly flexibility in the STEM fields. Regardless of the causes, the findings of this report provide evidence of a need to encourage and support women in STEM.

... read more

668 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1162/QJEC.2010.125.3.1101
Abstract: NBER WORKING PAPER SERIESSEX AND SCIENCE:HOW PROFESSOR GENDER PERPETUATES THE GENDER GAPScott E. CarrellMarianne E. PageJames E. WestWorking Paper 14959http://www.nber.org/papers/w14959NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH1050 Massachusetts AvenueCambridge, MA 02138May 2009Thanks go to USAFA personnel: J. Putnam, D. Stockburger, R. Schreiner, K. Carson and P. Eglestonfor assistance in obtaining the data, and to Deb West for data entry. Thanks also go to Charlie Brown,Charles Clotfelter, Caroline Hoxby, Deborah Niemeier, Kim Shauman, Catherine Weinberger andseminar participants at NBER Higher Education Working Group, PPIC, SDSU, UC Davis, UC Irvine,and UC Santa Cruz for their helpful comments and suggestions. The views expressed in this articleare those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the USAF, DoD,the U.S. Government, or the National Bureau of Economic Research.© 2009 by Scott E. Carrell, Marianne E. Page, and James E. West. All rights reserved. Short sectionsof text, not to exceed two paragraphs, may be quoted without explicit permission provided that fullcredit, including © notice, is given to the source.

... read more

272 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/HRM.20225
Diana Bilimoria1, Simy Joy1, Xiangfen Liang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: To increase the representation and participation of women and other minorities in organizations, workplaces must become more inclusive. For such change to be successful and sustainable, organizations must systematically break down the barriers constraining women's participation and effectiveness; improve their prevailing structures, policies, and practices; and engender transformation in their climates. This article presents the experience of 19 U.S. universities, funded by the National Science Foundation's ADVANCE Institutional Transformation program, that have embraced comprehensive transformation for improved gender representation and inclusion in science and engineering disciplines. It describes the facilitating factors, program initiatives, institutionalization, and outcomes of their transformation, and suggests a transformation model that all organizations can use to create an inclusive and productive workplace for a diverse workforce. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

... read more

233 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JPUBECO.2016.11.006
Anne Boring1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This article uses data from a French university to analyze gender biases in student evaluations of teaching (SETs). The results of fixed effects and generalized ordered logit regression analyses show that male students express a bias in favor of male professors. Also, the different teaching dimensions that students value in male and female professors tend to match gender stereotypes. Men are perceived by both male and female students as being more knowledgeable and having stronger class leadership skills (which are stereotypically associated with males), despite the fact that students appear to learn as much from women as from men.

... read more

212 Citations