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The english translation

31 Jan 1986-
About: The article was published on 1986-01-31. It has received 316 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Machine translation.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities.
Abstract: Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not.

955 citations

Book
01 Mar 1996
TL;DR: In this article, the saddle point and large singularities of analytic functions are used for graphical enumeration, including implicit functions, recurrences, and combinations of methods, which are related to our work.
Abstract: 12 Large singularities of analytic functions 113 12.1 The saddle point 13 Multivariate generating functions 128 14 Mellin and other integral transforms 134 15 Functional equations, recurrences, and combinations of methods 137 15.1 Implicit functions, graphical enumeration, and related

385 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High interpersonal sensitivity and, to a lesser extent, high neuroticism were still associated with an increased risk of being depressed when previously depressed women were excluded from analyses.
Abstract: One hundred and forty non-depressed primiparous women in a stable relationship completed two personality measures (the EPI and the IPSM) antenatally, and were then assessed for depression at several times post-natally. The risk of depression at six months was increased up to tenfold by high interpersonal sensitivity and threefold by high neuroticism. When previously depressed women were excluded from analyses, high interpersonal sensitivity and, to a lesser extent, high neuroticism were still associated with an increased risk of being depressed. Interpersonal sensitivity, as measured, is suggested as a refined personality risk factor to both the onset and recurrence of depression.

351 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Dec 2010
TL;DR: This chapter is a study of a simple version of general nonlinear integer problems, where all constraints are still linear, and focuses on the computational complexity of the problem, which varies significantly with the type of nonlinear objective function in combination with the underlying combinatorial structure.
Abstract: Research efforts of the past fifty years have led to a development of linear integer programming as a mature discipline of mathematical optimization. Such a level of maturity has not been reached when one considers nonlinear systems subject to integrality requirements for the variables. This chapter is dedicated to this topic. The primary goal is a study of a simple version of general nonlinear integer problems, where all constraints are still linear. Our focus is on the computational complexity of the problem, which varies significantly with the type of nonlinear objective function in combination with the underlying combinatorial structure. Numerous boundary cases of complexity emerge, which sometimes surprisingly lead even to polynomial time algorithms.We also cover recent successful approaches for more general classes of problems. Though no positive theoretical efficiency results are available, nor are they likely to ever be available, these seem to be the currently most successful and interesting approaches for solving practical problems. It is our belief that the study of algorithms motivated by theoretical considerations and those motivated by our desire to solve practical instances should and do inform one another. So it is with this viewpoint that we present the subject, and it is in this direction that we hope to spark further research.

278 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal herein is to collect several inequalities involving comparison functions involving asymptotic stability and input-to-state stability and its several variants in one place.
Abstract: The use of comparison functions has become standard in systems and con- trol theory, particularly for the purposes of studying stability properties. The use of these functions typically allows elegant and succinct statements of stability properties suchasasymptoticstabilityandinput-to-statestabilityanditsseveralvariants.Further- more, over the last 20years several inequalities involving these comparison functions have been developed that simplify their manipulation in the service of proving more significant results. Many of these inequalities have appeared in the body of proofs or in appendices of various papers. Our goal herein is to collect these inequalities in one place.

193 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities.
Abstract: Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not.

955 citations

Book
01 Mar 1996
TL;DR: In this article, the saddle point and large singularities of analytic functions are used for graphical enumeration, including implicit functions, recurrences, and combinations of methods, which are related to our work.
Abstract: 12 Large singularities of analytic functions 113 12.1 The saddle point 13 Multivariate generating functions 128 14 Mellin and other integral transforms 134 15 Functional equations, recurrences, and combinations of methods 137 15.1 Implicit functions, graphical enumeration, and related

385 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High interpersonal sensitivity and, to a lesser extent, high neuroticism were still associated with an increased risk of being depressed when previously depressed women were excluded from analyses.
Abstract: One hundred and forty non-depressed primiparous women in a stable relationship completed two personality measures (the EPI and the IPSM) antenatally, and were then assessed for depression at several times post-natally. The risk of depression at six months was increased up to tenfold by high interpersonal sensitivity and threefold by high neuroticism. When previously depressed women were excluded from analyses, high interpersonal sensitivity and, to a lesser extent, high neuroticism were still associated with an increased risk of being depressed. Interpersonal sensitivity, as measured, is suggested as a refined personality risk factor to both the onset and recurrence of depression.

351 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Dec 2010
TL;DR: This chapter is a study of a simple version of general nonlinear integer problems, where all constraints are still linear, and focuses on the computational complexity of the problem, which varies significantly with the type of nonlinear objective function in combination with the underlying combinatorial structure.
Abstract: Research efforts of the past fifty years have led to a development of linear integer programming as a mature discipline of mathematical optimization. Such a level of maturity has not been reached when one considers nonlinear systems subject to integrality requirements for the variables. This chapter is dedicated to this topic. The primary goal is a study of a simple version of general nonlinear integer problems, where all constraints are still linear. Our focus is on the computational complexity of the problem, which varies significantly with the type of nonlinear objective function in combination with the underlying combinatorial structure. Numerous boundary cases of complexity emerge, which sometimes surprisingly lead even to polynomial time algorithms.We also cover recent successful approaches for more general classes of problems. Though no positive theoretical efficiency results are available, nor are they likely to ever be available, these seem to be the currently most successful and interesting approaches for solving practical problems. It is our belief that the study of algorithms motivated by theoretical considerations and those motivated by our desire to solve practical instances should and do inform one another. So it is with this viewpoint that we present the subject, and it is in this direction that we hope to spark further research.

278 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal herein is to collect several inequalities involving comparison functions involving asymptotic stability and input-to-state stability and its several variants in one place.
Abstract: The use of comparison functions has become standard in systems and con- trol theory, particularly for the purposes of studying stability properties. The use of these functions typically allows elegant and succinct statements of stability properties suchasasymptoticstabilityandinput-to-statestabilityanditsseveralvariants.Further- more, over the last 20years several inequalities involving these comparison functions have been developed that simplify their manipulation in the service of proving more significant results. Many of these inequalities have appeared in the body of proofs or in appendices of various papers. Our goal herein is to collect these inequalities in one place.

193 citations