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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ECSS.2020.107148

The extended concept of littoral active zone considering soft sediment shores as social-ecological systems, and an application to Brittany (North-Western France)

05 Mar 2021-Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science (Academic Press)-Vol. 250, pp 107148
Abstract: This paper applies and extends the concept of Littoral Active Zone (LAZ) of sandy beaches as a relevant dimension to observe and manage this socio ecological system. The LAZ is a dynamic zone where exchanges across land and sea occur, and this concept was initially proposed on a geomorphological background only. However, to achieve full relevance and timely address management choices tied to the functioning of soft sediment shores, it became appropriate to extend its consideration to both the ecological and social templates co-existing on the same physical unit. Current paradigms around the concept of LAZ were used as a background to organize information from different disciplines and extend the concept to different soft sediment shores (mostly sandy beaches and salt marshes), towards a global, integrated relevance of the concept. As a test for this approach, we 1) struabctured information on the biophysical and social templates around the concept of LAZ, 2) extended it to salt marshes and 3) applied it to the case of the Breton coast for a practical test on information organization. Such an exercise highlighted key characteristics of the LAZ using a multidisciplinary approach, but also gaps to be filled when targeting research, perception, communication, sustainable use and management of the LAZ as a functional unit.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10841-021-00312-Z
Abstract: Declining biodiversity of marine ecosystems is impairing the functionality of seas and shore and their capability to provide ecological services and recover from perturbations due to human pressure. The European Union issued the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), providing criteria and methods to analyse the dominant pressures on marine and coastal environments. Anthropogenic litter is among the main sources of impact on coastal habitats. On the other hand, sand-dwelling beetles are among the most sensitive taxa to habitat disturbance. Applying MSFD criteria and metrics for community analyses, we studied the impact of anthropogenic litter on sand-dwelling beetle, focusing our attention on beach litter traps (BLTs): discarded containers that act as traps. Our aims were to identify and quantify period, beach zone and beetle taxa affected by entrapment effect. Three monthly surveys were carried out along the Ionian coast (Southern Italy) over the spring season, recording material, shape and position of buried and not buried BLTs along dune habitats and identifying entrapped beetle species. The highest density of containers was observed on hind dunes (13 items/100 m2), with glass bottles as the most frequent container (41%), entrapping more than 50% of individuals. Buried and not buried BLTs acted as traps, with no difference in trapping frequency regarding their material type and shape. A total of 2811 individuals were analysed, identifying 14 families and 18 species: Anthicus fenestratus (Anthicidae), Scarites buparius (Carabidae) and Pachychila frioli (Tenebrionidae) were the most affected species. The entrapment effect interests a large set of species, from detritivorous to carnivorous and saprophagous beetles, possibly altering the sand-dwelling beetle community. Our results represent a starting point to define and compare the magnitude of entrapment effect on arthropods. Besides, they could be useful to devise proper management strategies to reduce BLT effect on sand beetle community.

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Topics: European union (53%), Animal ecology (51%)

5 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2021.112951
Lucia Fanini, Omar Defeo, Michael Elliott1, Savvas Paragkamian2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: As sites of floating marine material deposition, sandy beaches accumulate marine litter. While research and assessment on beach litter is increasing and involves various actors (scientists, society and NGOs), there is the need to assess current and future dominant trends, directions and priorities in that research. As such, a textural co-occurrence analysis was applied to published scientific literature. Words were considered both singly and as part of compound terms related to concepts relevant to sandy beach ecology: morphodynamic state; Littoral Active Zone; indicator fauna. Litter as a compound term was also included. The main co-occurrences were found within compounds, with scarce interaction of “morphodynamic state” with the others, indicating the need for further integration of beach ecology paradigms into beached plastics studies. Three approaches are proposed to overcome the research limits highlighted: the unequivocation of terms, the consideration of adequate scales, and the attention to dynamics rather than just patterns.

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Topics: Ecology (disciplines) (51%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2021.112790
Abstract: This baseline intends to report on littering related to single-use plastic straws, contextualized on two touristic beaches on the Northern shores of Crete (Greece). While beached straws were found to be mainly depending on local drivers, the study further highlighted an additional source of pollution related to plastic straws: the clear wrap in which single-use items can be offered to users. Over the summer months, a number of discarded straw wraps was in fact found, significantly related to both beach width and the presence of colorful straws. Wraps are different in shape, material, as well as likelihood of being dispersed and broken down in the environment, and easily escape estimates from non-targeted sampling. The ban on single use items seems then to be the most effective approach to avoid straws and, indirectly, straw wraps litter or spills.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSMA.2021.101722
Abstract: The across-shore distribution of arthropods in two Uruguayan sandy beach–dune​ systems with contrasting morphodynamics was investigated. A deconstructive analysis was performed to describe faunal changes from the dunes to the shoreline. The Habitat Safety Hypothesis (HSH), which states that sandy beach supralittoral species are more abundant in the backshore of reflective beaches than in dissipative ones, was assessed. A hypothesis that predicts more diverse and abundant supralittoral and dune insects and arachnids in dissipative beaches was also tested. Sampling was performed simultaneously in both beaches with pitfall traps that were kept active for 24 h at three transects that included 17 sampling levels. The reflective beach presented significantly higher elevation, sand temperature, grain size and sorting, and lower sediment compaction and moisture than the dissipative one. Total abundance of arthropods was significantly higher in the reflective beach, supporting the HSH. However, the deconstructive analysis revealed different patterns in the across-shore distribution, diversity and abundance among taxa. Crustaceans, coleopterans and dipterans exhibited higher abundance in the backshore of the reflective beach, whereas acarines were more abundant in the dunes of the dissipative beach. Ants were similarly abundant in the dunes of both beach types. Species diversity did not differ between beaches and was higher in the dunes than in the backshore. The higher abundance observed in the backshore of the reflective beach supports the HSH, reinforcing the idea that the backshore of reflective beaches can be a safer zone not only for beach crustaceans inhabiting this beach fringe, but also for some insects (coleopterans and dipterans). Other arthropods (acarines) inhabiting the dunes were more abundant in the dissipative beach. The similar abundance of ants found in both beaches suggests that dunes offer suitable microhabitats for them, overriding the effects of beach morphodynamic factors.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FEVO.2021.694487
Abstract: Sandy beaches are ecotonal environments connecting land and sea, hosting exclusive resident organisms and key life stages of (often charismatic) fauna. Humans also visit sandy beaches where tourism in particular moves billions of people every year. Though, instead of representing a connection to nature, the attitude towards visiting the beach is biased concerning its recreational use. Such “sun, sea and sand” target and its display seem to be deeply rooted in social systems. How could scientists engage the newest generations and facilitate an exit from this loop, fostering care (including participative beach science) and ultimately a sustainable sandy beach use? To tackle this question we applied the concept of social-ecological systems to the Littoral Active Zone (LAZ). The LAZ is a unit sustaining beach functionalities, though includes relevant features making a beach attractive to the public. Out of the analysis of the system LAZ in its social and ecological templates, we extracted elements suitable to the planning of citizen science programs. The leverage points perspective was integrated to needs identified in the analysis, through reconnecting-restructuring-rethinking the components of the system. Two cross-cutting approaches were remarked as important to social and ecological designs and break through the dominant perception of beaches as mere piles of sand: the physical dimension (LAZ) of the beach as a unit, and the use of communication through social media, suitable to both monitoring and scientific data collection, and to data communication and hedonistic display of a day on the beach.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/622910
Abstract: In no other science does the problem of terminology present so many difficulties as in geology. With the growth of knowledge in any field of investigation, men devise new terms or redefine old ones in the attempt to convey more precise and definite ideas. In all the branches of science much confusion has followed the redefinition of old terms because of the indiscriminate use of the terms both in the old and the new senses. But in geology, difficulties of this kind are peculiarly great. Because geology is a field science and has followed in the footsteps of exploration, it has acquired terms from all parts of the world. Many of the names for the less common special features have come from the dialect or colloquial speech of that part of the world where they are best developed. With the use of these terms of geologists of other regions, much irregularity of usage and hence much confusion has arisen. Since '917, the writer had been engaged in the study of abrasion and shaping of cobbles and pebbles by the action of running water. In the course of this study the loose usage of cobble, pebble, and related terms (in which his own practice was no exception) has impressed him with the need of greater uniformity of usage and

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4,806 Citations


01 Jan 2006-
Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. The Physical Environment 3. The Interstitial Environment 4. Beach and Surf Zone Flora 5. Sandy Beach Invertebrates 6. Adaptation to Sandy Beach Life 7. Benthic Macrofauna Communities 8. Benthic Macrofauna Populations 9. Interstitial Ecology 10. Surf Zone Fauna 11. Turtles and Terrestrial Vertebrates 12. Energetics and Nutrient Cycling 13. Coastal Dune Ecosystems and Dune-beach Interactions 13. Conclusions 14. Human Impacts 15. Coastal Zone Management 16. Glossary 17. References 18. Appendices

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Topics: Surf zone (58%), Benthic zone (57%), Fauna (51%)

1,249 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1114773109
Terry C. Daniel1, Andreas Muhar2, Arne Arnberger2, Olivier Aznar  +18 moreInstitutions (14)
Abstract: Cultural ecosystem services (ES) are consistently recognized but not yet adequately defined or integrated within the ES framework. A substantial body of models, methods, and data relevant to cultural services has been developed within the social and behavioral sciences before and outside of the ES approach. A selective review of work in landscape aesthetics, cultural heritage, outdoor recreation, and spiritual significance demonstrates opportunities for operationally defining cultural services in terms of socioecological models, consistent with the larger set of ES. Such models explicitly link ecological structures and functions with cultural values and benefits, facilitating communication between scientists and stakeholders and enabling economic, multicriterion, deliberative evaluation and other methods that can clarify tradeoffs and synergies involving cultural ES. Based on this approach, a common representation is offered that frames cultural services, along with all ES, by the relative contribution of relevant ecological structures and functions and by applicable social evaluation approaches. This perspective provides a foundation for merging ecological and social science epistemologies to define and integrate cultural services better within the broader ES framework.

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Topics: Cultural analysis (61%), Cultural heritage (56%), Cultural landscape (55%) ... show more

1,004 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ECSS.2008.09.022
Abstract: We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical–biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not been widely implemented in sandy beaches, could be a key tool for biodiversity conservation and should also facilitate spillover effects into adjacent beach habitats. Setback and zoning strategies need to be enforced through legislation, and all relevant stakeholders should be included in the design, implementation and institutionalisation of these initiatives. New perspectives for rational management of sandy beaches require paradigm shifts, by including not only basic ecosystem principles, but also incentives for effective governance and sharing of management roles between government and local stakeholders.

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861 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3354/MEPS295001
Omar Defeo1, Anton McLachlanInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Physical and biological factors govern com- munity and population features of sandy beach macro- fauna. At the macroscale, species richness decreases from tropical to temperate beaches, and from macrotidal dissipative to microtidal reflective beaches. At the species level, life history traits are highly plastic over latitudinal gradients; large-scale variations in environmental vari- ables modulate intraspecific phenotypic differentiation. At the mesoscale, alongshore and across-shore distribu- tions tend to be unimodal, bell-shaped within a beach, with abundance varying from the central region to the boundaries, even though environmental gradients (wave exposure, salinity) can cause asymmetries. Zona- tion is highly dynamic and not sharply defined. This is attributed to short- (hourly, daily) or medium- (seasonal) term reactions to environmental conditions, passive transport and sorting by the swash (e.g. recruits), active micro-habitat selection (e.g. adults), and intra- and inter- specific interactions. Across-shore distribution may be- come multimodal due to intraspecific segregation by sizes during recruitment. At the microscale (individual neighbourhood or quadrat scale), behavioural factors and intra-/interspecific interactions become more important as density increases. Human induced impacts also gener- ate variability in population demography, structure and dynamics. We identify physical-biological coupling at dif- ferent temporal and spatial scales, emphasizing the role of life history traits in order to assess alternative regula- tory mechanisms and processes. Our synthesis suggests that: (1) biological interactions are more important regu- latory agents than previously thought: in benign dissipa- tive beaches or undisturbed sites, intra- and interspecific competition can be more intense than in reflective beach- es or disturbed sites, where the populations are physi- cally controlled; (2) supralittoral forms are relatively inde- pendent of the swash regime and show no clear response to beach type; (3) marked long-term fluctuations are noticeable in species with planktonic larvae structured as metapopulations, due to environmental disturbances and stochasticity in reproduction and recruitment.

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Topics: Population (53%), Swash (50%)

401 Citations


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