# The Fourth-order Bessel–type Differential Equation

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TL;DR: The theory of functions is the basis on which the whole of pure mathematics which deals with continuously varying quantity rests as mentioned in this paper, and the answer would not be too wide nor would it always imply too much.

Abstract: WHAT is the theory of functions about? This question may be heard now and again from a mathematical student; and if, by way of a pattial reply, it be said that the elements of the theory of functions forms the basis on which the whole of that part of pure mathematics which deals with continuously varying quantity rests, the answer would not be too wide nor would it always imply too much. Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. By Dr. A. R. Forsyth. (Cambridge University Press, 1893.)

457 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the spectral theory of differential operators of the form============★★★★★★★★★★ Ⴗℒ2w(0, ∞) was studied and estimates for the eigenfunctions and M -matrix were derived.

Abstract: We study the spectral theory of differential operators of the form
on ℒ2w(0, ∞). By means of asymptotic integration, estimates for the eigenfunctions andM -matrix are derived. Since the M -function is the Stieltjes transform of the spectral measure, spectral properties of τ are directly related to the asymptotics of the eigenfunctions. The method of asymptotic integration, however, excludes coefficients which are too oscillatory or whose derivatives decay too slowly. Consequently there is no singular continuous spectrum in all our cases. This was found earlier for Sturm–Liouville operators, for which theWKB method provides a good approximation. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

15 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new proof of the existence of this solution base is given, on using the advanced theory of special functions in the complex plane, which leads to the development of analytical properties of these solutions, in particular the series expansions of all solutions at the regular singularity at the origin.

Abstract: The structured Bessel-type functions of arbitrary even-order were introduced by Everitt and Markett in 1994; these functions satisfy linear ordinary differential equations of the same even-order. The differential equations have analytic coefficients and are defined on the whole complex plane with a regular singularity at the origin and an irregular singularity at the point of infinity. They are all natural extensions of the classical second-order Bessel differential equation. Further these differential equations have real-valued coefficients on the positive real half-line of the plane, and can be written in Lagrange symmetric (formally self-adjoint) form. In the fourth-order case, the Lagrange symmetric differential expression generates self-adjoint unbounded operators in certain Hilbert function spaces. These results are recorded in many of the papers here given as references. It is shown in the original paper of 1994 that in this fourth-order case one solution exists which can be represented in terms of the classical Bessel functions of order 0 and 1. The existence of this solution, further aided by computer programs in Maple, led to the existence of a linearly independent basis of solutions of the differential equation. In this paper a new proof of the existence of this solution base is given, on using the advanced theory of special functions in the complex plane. The methods lead to the development of analytical properties of these solutions, in particular the series expansions of all solutions at the regular singularity at the origin of the complex plane.

12 citations

### Cites background or methods from "The Fourth-order Bessel–type Differ..."

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report on the properties of the fourth-order Bessel-type linear ordinary differential equation, on the generated self-adjoint differential operators in two associated Hilbert function spaces, and on the generalisation of the classical Hankel integral transform.

Abstract: This survey paper reports on the properties of the fourth-order Bessel-type linear ordinary differential equation, on the generated self-adjoint differential operators in two associated Hilbert function spaces, and on the generalisation of the classical Hankel integral transform. These results are based upon the properties of the classical Bessel and Laguerre secondorder differential equations, and on the fourth-order Laguerre-type differential equation. From these differential equations and their solutions, limit processes yield the fourth-order Bessel-type functions and the associated differential equation.

10 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors report on the recent advancements in the search for explicit representation, in classical special functions, of the solutions of the fourth-order ordinary differential equations named Bessel-type, Jacobi-type and Legendre-type.

Abstract: This note reports on the recent advancements in the search for explicit representation, in classical special functions, of the solutions of the fourth-order ordinary differential equations named Bessel-type, Jacobi-type, Laguerre-type, Legendre-type.

10 citations

### Cites background or methods from "The Fourth-order Bessel–type Differ..."

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##### References

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01 Jan 1958

5,552 citations

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01 Jan 1993

TL;DR: In this article, the main properties of bounded and unbounded operators, adjoint operators, symmetric and self-adjoint operators in hilbert spaces are discussed, as well as the stability of self-jointness under small perturbations.

Abstract: linear operators in hilbert spaces | springerlink abstract. we recall some fundamental notions of the theory of linear operators in hilbert spaces which are required for a rigorous formulation of the rules of quantum mechanics in the one-body case. in particular, we introduce and discuss the main properties of bounded and unbounded operators, adjoint operators, symmetric and self-adjoint operators, self-adjointness criterion and stability of self-adjointness under small perturbations, spectrum, isometric and unitary operators, spectral

2,230 citations

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01 Jun 1985

TL;DR: In this paper, the Laurent series is used for expanding functions in Taylor series, and the calculus of residues is used to expand functions in Laurent series volumes II, III, and IV.

Abstract: Volume I, Part 1: Basic Concepts: I.1 Introduction I.2 Complex numbers I.3 Sets and functions. Limits and continuity I.4 Connectedness. Curves and domains I.5. Infinity and stereographic projection I.6 Homeomorphisms Part 2: Differentiation. Elementary Functions: I.7 Differentiation and the Cauchy-Riemann equations I.8 Geometric interpretation of the derivative. Conformal mapping I.9 Elementary entire functions I.10 Elementary meromorphic functions I.11 Elementary multiple-valued functions Part 3: Integration. Power Series: I.12 Rectifiable curves. Complex integrals I.13 Cauchy's integral theorem I.14 Cauchy's integral and related topics I.15 Uniform convergence. Infinite products I.16 Power series: rudiments I.17 Power series: ramifications I.18 Methods for expanding functions in Taylor series Volume II, Part 1: Laurent Series. Calculus of Residues: II.1 Laurent's series. Isolated singular points II.2 The calculus of residues and its applications II.3 Inverse and implicit functions II.4 Univalent functions Part 2: Harmonic and Subharmonic Functions: II.5 Basic properties of harmonic functions II.6 Applications to fluid dynamics II.7 Subharmonic functions II.8 The Poisson-Jensen formula and related topics Part 3: Entire and Meromorphic Functions: II.9 Basic properties of entire functions II.10 Infinite product and partial fraction expansions Volume III, Part 1: Conformal Mapping. Approximation Theory: III.1 Conformal mapping: rudiments III.2 Conformal mapping: ramifications III.3 Approximation by rational functions and polynomials Part 2: Periodic and Elliptic Functions: III.4 Periodic meromorphic functions III.5 Elliptic functions: Weierstrass' theory III.6 Elliptic functions: Jacobi's theory Part 3: Riemann Surfaces. Analytic Continuation: III.7 Riemann surfaces III.8 Analytic continuation III.9 The symmetry principle and its applications Bibliography Index.

1,423 citations

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05 May 1980

TL;DR: The spectral theory of self-adjoint and normal operators on L2(a, b) spaces has been studied in this article, where it has been shown that the existence and completeness of wave operators can be proved.

Abstract: 1 Vector spaces with a scalar product, pre-Hilbert spaces.- 1.1 Sesquilinear forms.- 1.2 Scalar products and norms.- 2 Hilbert spaces.- 2.1 Convergence and completeness.- 2.2 Topological notions.- 3 Orthogonality.- 3.1 The projection theorem.- 3.2 Orthonormal systems and orthonormal bases.- 3.3 Existence of orthonormal bases, dimension of a Hilbert space.- 3.4 Tensor products of Hilbert spaces.- 4 Linear operators and their adjoints.- 4.1 Basic notions.- 4.2 Bounded linear operators and functionals.- 4.3 Isomorphisms, completion.- 4.4 Adjoint operator.- 4.5 The theorem of Banach-Steinhaus, strong and weak convergence.- 4.6 Orthogonal projections, isometric and unitary operators.- 5 Closed linear operators.- 5.1 Closed and closable operators, the closed graph theorem.- 5.2 The fundamentals of spectral theory.- 5.3 Symmetric and self-adjoint operators.- 5.4 Self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators.- 5.5 Operators defined by sesquilinear forms (Friedrichs' extension).- 5.6 Normal operators.- 6 Special classes of linear operators.- 6.1 Finite rank and compact operators.- 6.2 Hilbert-Schmidt operators and Carleman operators.- 6.3 Matrix operators and integral operators.- 6.4 Differential operators on L2(a, b) with constant coefficients.- 7 The spectral theory of self-adjoint and normal operators.- 7.1 The spectral theorem for compact operators, the spaces Bp (H1H2).- 7.2 Integration with respect to a spectral family.- 7.3 The spectral theorem for self-adjoint operators.- 7.4 Spectra of self-adjoint operators.- 7.5 The spectral theorem for normal operators.- 7.6 One-parameter unitary groups.- 8 Self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators.- 8.1 Defect indices and Cayley transforms.- 8.2 Construction of self-adjoint extensions.- 8.3 Spectra of self-adjoint extensions of a symmetric operator.- 8.4 Second order ordinary differential operators.- 8.5 Analytic vectors and tensor products of self-adjoint operators.- 9 Perturbation theory for self-adjoint operators.- 9.1 Relatively bounded perturbations.- 9.2 Relatively compact perturbations and the essential spectrum.- 9.3 Strong resolvent convergence.- 10 Differential operators on L2(?m).- 10.1 The Fourier transformation on L2(?m).- 10.2 Sobolev spaces and differential operators on L2(?m) with constant coefficients.- 10.3 Relatively bounded and relatively compact perturbations.- 10.4 Essentially self-adjoint Schrodinger operators.- 10.5 Spectra of Schrodinger operators.- 10.6 Dirac operators.- 11 Scattering theory.- 11.1 Wave operators.- 11.2 The existence and completeness of wave operators.- 11.3 Applications to differential operators on L2(?m).- A.1 Definition of the integral.- A.2 Limit theorems.- A.3 Measurable functions and sets.- A.4 The Fubini-Tonelli theorem.- A.5 The Radon-Nikodym theorem.- References.- Index of symbols.- Author and subject index.

1,329 citations

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01 Mar 1978

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors define the following criteria for exponential and ordinary dichotomies: stability, roughness, reducibility, robustness, and robustness of an exponential dichotomy.

Abstract: Stability.- Exponential and ordinary dichotomies.- Dichotomies and functional analysis.- Roughness.- Dichotomies and reducibility.- Criteria for an exponential dichotomy.- Dichotomies and lyapunov functions.- Equations on ? and almost periodic equations.- Dichotomies and the hull of an equation.

1,088 citations

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