# The fractional Fourier transform: theory, implementation and error analysis

TL;DR: It is hoped that this implementation and fixed-point error analysis will lead to a better understanding of the issues involved in finite register length implementation of the discrete fractional Fourier transform and will help the signal processing community make better use of the transform.

About: This article is published in Microprocessors and Microsystems.The article was published on 2003-11-03. It has received 128 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Fractional Fourier transform & Non-uniform discrete Fourier transform.

##### Citations

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TL;DR: This paper is geared toward signal processing practitioners by emphasizing the practical digital realizations and applications of the FRFT, which is closely related to other mathematical transforms, such as time-frequency and linear canonical transforms.

335 citations

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01 Jan 1998

TL;DR: Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials, Advances in Electronics and Electro-Magnetic Physics (AEEE and EEE), and advances in Optical and Electro Electron Microscopy (OEM) as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contains contributions from leading authorities on the subject matter* Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field of imaging and electron physics* Provides practitioners interested in microscopy, optics, image processing, mathematical morphology, electromagnetic fields, electron, and ion emission with a valuable resource* Features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, and digital image processing

225 citations

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TL;DR: A robust copyright protection scheme based on fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) and visual cryptography (VC) and the experimental results show that the proposed scheme is strong enough to resist various signal processing operations.

131 citations

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TL;DR: The present article collects the scattered tools into a dashboard view, briefly introduces their usage and algorithms, evaluates the accuracy, compares the performance, and provides informative comments for selection.

Abstract: In recent years, as fractional calculus becomes more and more broadly used in research across different academic disciplines, there are increasing demands for the numerical tools for the computation of fractional integration/differentiation, and the simulation of fractional order systems. Time to time, being asked about which tool is suitable for a specific application, the authors decide to carry out this survey to present recapitulative information of the available tools in the literature, in hope of benefiting researchers with different academic backgrounds. With this motivation, the present article collects the scattered tools into a dashboard view, briefly introduces their usage and algorithms, evaluates the accuracy, compares the performance, and provides informative comments for selection.

128 citations

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TL;DR: The authors briefly introduce the functional Fourier transform and a number of its properties and present some new results: the interpretation as a rotation in the time-frequency plane, and the FRFT's relationships with time- frequencies such as the Wigner distribution, the ambiguity function, the short-time Fouriertransform and the spectrogram.

Abstract: The functional Fourier transform (FRFT), which is a generalization of the classical Fourier transform, was introduced a number of years ago in the mathematics literature but appears to have remained largely unknown to the signal processing community, to which it may, however, be potentially useful. The FRFT depends on a parameter /spl alpha/ and can be interpreted as a rotation by an angle /spl alpha/ in the time-frequency plane. An FRFT with /spl alpha/=/spl pi//2 corresponds to the classical Fourier transform, and an FRFT with /spl alpha/=0 corresponds to the identity operator. On the other hand, the angles of successively performed FRFTs simply add up, as do the angles of successive rotations. The FRFT of a signal can also be interpreted as a decomposition of the signal in terms of chirps. The authors briefly introduce the FRFT and a number of its properties and then present some new results: the interpretation as a rotation in the time-frequency plane, and the FRFT's relationships with time-frequency representations such as the Wigner distribution, the ambiguity function, the short-time Fourier transform and the spectrogram. These relationships have a very simple and natural form and support the FRFT's interpretation as a rotation operator. Examples of FRFTs of some simple signals are given. An example of the application of the FRFT is also given. >

1,698 citations

### "The fractional Fourier transform: t..." refers background in this paper

...It is a well-documented fact that the FRFT of a signal corresponds to the rotation of the Wigner distribution of that signal by the required angle a [1]....

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31 Jan 2001

TL;DR: The fractional Fourier transform (FFT) as discussed by the authors has been used in a variety of applications, such as matching filtering, detection, and pattern recognition, as well as signal recovery.

Abstract: Preface. Acknowledgments. Introduction. Signals, Systems, and Transformations. Wigner Distributions and Linear Canonical Transforms. The Fractional Fourier Transform. Time-Order and Space-Order Representations. The Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform. Optical Signals and Systems. Phase-Space Optics. The Fractional Fourier Transform in Optics. Applications of the Fractional Fourier Transform to Filtering, Estimation, and Signal Recovery. Applications of the Fractional Fourier Transform to Matched Filtering, Detection, and Pattern Recognition. Bibliography on the Fractional Fourier Transform. Other Cited Works. Credits. Index.

1,287 citations

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TL;DR: An algorithm for efficient and accurate computation of the fractional Fourier transform for signals with time-bandwidth product N, which computes the fractionsal transform in O(NlogN) time.

Abstract: An algorithm for efficient and accurate computation of the fractional Fourier transform is given. For signals with time-bandwidth product N, the presented algorithm computes the fractional transform in O(NlogN) time. A definition for the discrete fractional Fourier transform that emerges from our analysis is also discussed.

1,034 citations

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TL;DR: This definition is based on a particular set of eigenvectors of the DFT matrix, which constitutes the discrete counterpart of the set of Hermite-Gaussian functions, and is exactly unitary, index additive, and reduces to the D FT for unit order.

Abstract: We propose and consolidate a definition of the discrete fractional Fourier transform that generalizes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in the same sense that the continuous fractional Fourier transform generalizes the continuous ordinary Fourier transform. This definition is based on a particular set of eigenvectors of the DFT matrix, which constitutes the discrete counterpart of the set of Hermite-Gaussian functions. The definition is exactly unitary, index additive, and reduces to the DFT for unit order. The fact that this definition satisfies all the desirable properties expected of the discrete fractional Fourier transform supports our confidence that it will be accepted as the definitive definition of this transform.

604 citations

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01 Aug 1972TL;DR: The groundwork is set through a discussion of the relationship between the binary representation of numbers and truncation or rounding, and a formulation of a statistical model for arithmetic roundoff, to illustrate techniques of working with particular models.

Abstract: When digital signal processing operations are implemented on a computer or with special-purpose hardware, errors and constraints due to finite word length are unavoidable. The main categories of finite register length effects are errors due to A/D conversion, errors due to roundoffs in the arithmetic, constraints on signal levels imposed by the need to prevent overflow, and quantization of system coefficients. The effects of finite register length on implementations of linear recursive difference equation digital filters, and the fast Fourier transform (FFT), are discussed in some detail. For these algorithms, the differing quantization effects of fixed point, floating point, and block floating point arithmetic are examined and compared. The paper is intended primarily as a tutorial review of a subject which has received considerable attention over the past few years. The groundwork is set through a discussion of the relationship between the binary representation of numbers and truncation or rounding, and a formulation of a statistical model for arithmetic roundoff. The analyses presented here are intended to illustrate techniques of working with particular models. Results of previous work are discussed and summarized when appropriate. Some examples are presented to indicate how the results developed for simple digital filters and the FFT can be applied to the analysis of more complicated systems which use these algorithms as building blocks.

333 citations

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