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Journal ArticleDOI

The frequency of Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men of Vellore cohort

TL;DR: There was an absence of microdeletion in patient samples for SY82 and SY83 markers of AZFa region and it was concluded that sample size should be increased to confirm the results.
Abstract: Many male infertility cases are because of genetic and environmental factors and most of them are idiopathic. About 10-20% of azoospermic patients are showing the microdeletion in Y-chromosome. The azoospermia factor or AZF region at the Yq11 position which consists of genes those are necessary for spermatogenesis. In Y chromosome microdeletion, deletion in AZFa region is very rare. The aim of our study is to find out the frequency of microdeletions in Y chromosome particularly in AZFa region in azoospermic men of Vellore cohort. For this study, we collected 10 azoospermic patient and 10 control men samples from the Sandhya hospital, Vellore. In this study, we mainly focused on AZFa region to analyze the frequency of microdeletions in Y chromosome using SY82 (264bp) and SY83 (275bp) STS markers. There was an absence of microdeletion in patient samples for SY82 and SY83 markers of AZFa region. We concluded that sample size should be increased to confirm our results.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present literature will help in knowing the trends of male factor infertility in developing nations like India and to find out in future, various factors that may be responsible for male infertility.
Abstract: Infertility and problems of impaired fecundity have been a concern through ages and is also a significant clinical problem today, which affects 8-12% of couples worldwide. Of all infertility cases, approximately 40-50% is due to "male factor" infertility and as many as 2% of all men will exhibit suboptimal sperm parameters. It may be one or a combination of low sperm concentration, poor sperm motility, or abnormal morphology. The rates of infertility in less industrialized nations are markedly higher and infectious diseases are responsible for a greater proportion of infertility. The present literature will help in knowing the trends of male factor infertility in developing nations like India and to find out in future, various factors that may be responsible for male infertility.

656 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A clear correlation exists between the size and localization of the deletions and the testicular phenotype, however, it is clear that larger deletions are associated with the most severe testicular damage.
Abstract: Three different spermatogenesis loci have been mapped on the Y chromosome and named "azoospermia factors" (AZFa, b, and c). Deletions in these regions remove one or more of the candidate genes (DAZ, RBMY, USP9Y, and DBY) and cause severe testiculopathy leading to male infertility. We have reviewed the literature and the most recent advances in Y chromosome mapping, focusing our attention on the correlation between Y chromosome microdeletions and alterations of spermatogenesis. More than 4,800 infertile patients were screened for Y microdeletions and published. Such deletions determine azoospermia more frequently than severe oligozoospermia and involve especially the AZFc region including the DAZ gene family. Overall, the prevalence of Y chromosome microdeletions is 4% in oligozoospermic patients, 14% in idiopathic severely oligozoospermic men, 11% in azoospermic men, and 18% in idiopathic azoospermic subjects. Patient selection criteria appear to substantially influence the prevalence of microdeletions. No clear correlation exists between the size and localization of the deletions and the testicular phenotype. However, it is clear that larger deletions are associated with the most severe testicular damage. Patients with Y chromosome deletions frequently have sperm either in the ejaculate or within the testis and are therefore suitable candidates for assisted reproduction techniques. This possibility raises a number of medical and ethical concerns, since the use of spermatozoa carrying Y chromosome deletions may produce pregnancies, but in such cases the genetic anomaly will invariably be passed on to male offspring.

466 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The discovery of breakpoint hotspots suggest that factors in addition to homology underlie these deletions, which are the largest of all human interstitial deletions for which deletion junctions and complete intervening sequence are available.
Abstract: It is widely believed that at least three nonoverlapping regions of the human Y chromosome—AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc (“azoospermia factors” a ,b , and c)—are essential for normal spermatogenesis. These intervals are defined by interstitial Y-chromosome deletions that impair or extinguish spermatogenesis. Deletion breakpoints, mechanisms, and lengths, as well as inventories of affected genes, have been elucidated for deletions of AZFa and of AZFc but not for deletions of AZFb or of AZFb plus AZFc. We studied three deletions of AZFb and eight deletions of AZFb plus AZFc, as assayed by the STSs defining these intervals. Guided by Y-chromosome sequence, we localized breakpoints precisely and were able to sequence nine of the deletion junctions. Homologous recombination can explain seven of these deletions but not the remaining two. This fact and our discovery of breakpoint hotspots suggest that factors in addition to homology underlie these deletions. The deletions previously thought to define AZFb were found to extend from palindrome P5 to the proximal arm of palindrome P1, 1.5 Mb within AZFc. Thus, they do not define a genomic region separate from AZFc. We also found that the deletions of AZFb plus AZFc, as assayed by standard STSs heretofore available, in fact extend from P5 to the distal arm of P1 and spare distal AZFc. Both classes of deletions are massive: P5/proximal-P1 deletions encompass up to 6.2 Mb and remove 32 genes and transcripts; P5/distal-P1 deletions encompass up to 7.7 Mb and remove 42 genes and transcripts. To our knowledge, these are the largest of all human interstitial deletions for which deletion junctions and complete intervening sequence are available. The restriction of the associated phenotype to spermatogenic failure indicates the remarkable functional specialization of the affected regions of the Y chromosome.

427 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is assumed that intrachromosomal recombination events between the two homologous retroviral sequence blocks in proximal Yq11 are probably the causative agents for most of the AZFa microdeletions observed in men with SCO syndrome.
Abstract: We mapped the breakpoints of the AZoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletion located in proximal Yq11 in six men with complete germ cell aplasia, i.e. Sertoli Cell Only syndrome (SCO). The proximal breakpoints were identified in a long retroviral sequence block (HERV15yq1: 9747 nucleotides) at the 5' end of the DYS11 DNA locus in Yq11, interval D3. The distal breakpoints were found in a homologous HERV15 sequence block mapped to the Yq11 interval D6, i.e. in the distal part of the AZFa region (HERV15yq2: 9969 nucleotides). Compared with the HERV15yq1 sequence, HERV15yq2 is marked by a deletion of a HERV15 sequence domain at its 5' end and insertion of an LINE 1 3'-UTR sequence block (L1 PA4) of similar length at its 3' end. The deletion of the L1 PA4 element was recognized as the molecular origin of the DYS11 12f2 restriction fragment length polymorphism. For all six AZFa patients it was possible to perform PCR experiments bridging both retroviral sequence blocks, which map in a distance of 781.557 kb in proximal Yq11 in fertile men. The AZFa breakpoint-fusion regions were located in their recombined HERV15yq1/HERV15yq2 sequence blocks in either one of two long identical sequence domains (ID1 and ID2). We therefore assume that intrachromosomal recombination events between the two homologous retroviral sequence blocks in proximal Yq11 are probably the causative agents for most of the AZFa microdeletions observed in men with SCO syndrome. A mean value of 792 kb was estimated for their molecular lengths.

221 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The recent evolution in the development of whole-genome-based techniques and the large-scale analysis of mouse models might help in this process of finding out the underlying causes of male infertility.
Abstract: Approximately 10%-15% of couples are infertile, and a male factor is involved in almost half of these cases. This observation is due in part to defects in spermatogenesis, and the underlying causes, including genetic abnormalities, remain largely unknown. Until recently, the only genetic tests used in the diagnosis of male infertility were aimed at detecting the presence of microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single-gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. However, their causative effects often remain unproven. The recent evolution in the development of whole-genome-based techniques and the large-scale analysis of mouse models might help in this process. Through knockout mouse models, at least 388 genes have been shown to be associated with spermatogenesis in mice. However, problems often arise when translating this information from mice to humans.

164 citations