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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00343404.2021.1884216

The geography of Industry 4.0 technologies across European regions

04 Mar 2021-Regional Studies (Routledge)-Vol. 55, pp 1667-1680
Abstract: This paper investigates the spatial distribution of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) considering both region- and technology-specific factors. Focusing on patent data for four technologies at the core of I4.0 b...

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Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: This handbook looks to provide academics and students with a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the phenomenon of innovation. Innovation spans a number of fields within the social sciences and humanities: Management, Economics, Geography, Sociology, Politics, Psychology, and History. Consequently, the rapidly increasing body of literature on innovation is characterized by a multitude of perspectives based on, or cutting across, existing disciplines and specializations. Scholars of innovation can come from such diverse starting points that much of this literature can be missed, and so constructive dialogues missed. The editors of The Oxford Handbook of Innovation have carefully selected and designed twenty-one contributions from leading academic experts within their particular field, each focusing on a specific aspect of innovation. These have been organized into four main sections, the first of which looks at the creation of innovations, with particular focus on firms and networks. Section Two provides an account of the wider systematic setting influencing innovation and the role of institutions and organizations in this context. Section Three explores some of the diversity in the working of innovation over time and across different sectors of the economy, and Section Four focuses on the consequences of innovation with respect to economic growth, international competitiveness, and employment. An introductory overview, concluding remarks, and guide to further reading for each chapter, make this handbook a key introduction and vital reference work for researchers, academics, and advanced students of innovation. Contributors to this volume - Jan Fagerberg, University of Oslo William Lazonick, INSEAD Walter W. Powell, Stanford University Keith Pavitt, SPRU Alice Lam, Brunel University Keith Smith, INTECH Charles Edquist, Linkoping David Mowery, University of California, Berkeley Mary O'Sullivan, INSEAD Ove Granstrand, Chalmers Bjorn Asheim, University of Lund Rajneesh Narula, Copenhagen Business School Antonello Zanfei, Urbino Kristine Bruland, University of Oslo Franco Malerba, University of Bocconi Nick Von Tunzelmann, SPRU Ian Miles, University of Manchester Bronwyn Hall, University of California, Berkeley Bart Verspagen , ECIS Francisco Louca, ISEG Manuel M. Godinho, ISEG Richard R. Nelson, Mario Pianta, Urbino Bengt-Ake Lundvall, Aalborg

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2,961 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13662716.2021.1967730
Abstract: In spite of the fast spread of Additive Manufacturing (AM) in several countries and industries, its impact on employment is still unexplored and theoretically ambiguous. On the one hand, higher product customisation and shorter time-to-market entail an expansion of the market, thus fostering labour demand; on the other hand, AM profoundly changes the way goods are produced and little evidence exists regarding the complementarity or substitutability between AM technologies and labour. In this article, we contribute to fill this gap. We estimate labour demand functions augmented with a (patent-based) proxy of AM-related innovation in 31 OECD countries, across 21 manufacturing industries, over the 2009–2017 period. Our econometric findings show an overall positive relationship between AM technologies and employment at the industry level, due to both market expansion and complementarity between labour and AM technologies, while no labour-saving effect emerges. The importance of each mechanism, however, is heterogeneous across sectors.

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Topics: Manufacturing (53%), Technological change (52%), Product (business) (50%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00343404.2021.1964698
Roberta Capello1, Camilla Lenzi1Institutions (1)
15 Sep 2021-Regional Studies
Abstract: The Fourth Technological Revolution has become a reality and profound changes and restructuring in the markets for 4.0 technologies are taking place with important spatial consequences. The paper d...

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Topics: Technological revolution (67%), Restructuring (59%)

1 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: The geographical distribution of innovative activities is an emerging subject, but still poorly understood. While previous efforts highlighted that different technologies exhibit different spatial patterns, in this paper we analyse the geography of innovation in the very long run. Using a US patent dataset geocoded for the years 1836-2010, we observe that ? while it is true that differences in technologies are strong determinant of spatial patterns ? changes within a technology over time is at least as important. In particular, we find that regional entry follows the technology life cycle. Subsequently, innovation becomes less geographical concentrated in the first half of the life cycle, to then re-concentrate in the second half.

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Topics: Technology life cycle (54%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1386/JDMP_00032_5
01 Nov 2020-
Abstract: Review of: Transforming Industrial Policy for the Digital Age: Production, Territories and Structural Change, PATRIZIO BIANCHI, CLEMENTE RUIZ DURAN AND SANDRINE LABORY (eds) (2019)Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 256 pp.,ISBN 978-1-78897-614-5, h/bk, £90.00

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1 Citations


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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/2393553
Wesley M. Cohen1, Daniel A. Levinthal2Institutions (2)
Abstract: In this paper, we argue that the ability of a firm to recognize the value of new, external information, assimilate it, and apply it to commercial ends is critical to its innovative capabilities. We label this capability a firm's absorptive capacity and suggest that it is largely a function of the firm's level of prior related knowledge. The discussion focuses first on the cognitive basis for an individual's absorptive capacity including, in particular, prior related knowledge and diversity of background. We then characterize the factors that influence absorptive capacity at the organizational level, how an organization's absorptive capacity differs from that of its individual members, and the role of diversity of expertise within an organization. We argue that the development of absorptive capacity, and, in turn, innovative performance are history- or path-dependent and argue how lack of investment in an area of expertise early on may foreclose the future development of a technical capability in that area. We formulate a model of firm investment in research and development (R&D), in which R&D contributes to a firm's absorptive capacity, and test predictions relating a firm's investment in R&D to the knowledge underlying technical change within an industry. Discussion focuses on the implications of absorptive capacity for the analysis of other related innovative activities, including basic research, the adoption and diffusion of innovations, and decisions to participate in cooperative R&D ventures. **

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Topics: Absorptive capacity (83%), R&D intensity (62%), Knowledge-based theory of the firm (60%) ... show more

29,672 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1287/ORSC.2.1.71
James G. March1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper considers the relation between the exploration of new possibilities and the exploitation of old certainties in organizational learning. It examines some complications in allocating resources between the two, particularly those introduced by the distribution of costs and benefits across time and space, and the effects of ecological interaction. Two general situations involving the development and use of knowledge in organizations are modeled. The first is the case of mutual learning between members of an organization and an organizational code. The second is the case of learning and competitive advantage in competition for primacy. The paper develops an argument that adaptive processes, by refining exploitation more rapidly than exploration, are likely to become effective in the short run but self-destructive in the long run. The possibility that certain common organizational practices ameliorate that tendency is assessed.

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Topics: Organizational learning (68%), Ambidextrous organization (65%), Organization development (60%) ... show more

14,959 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/2118401
Abstract: We compare the geographic location of patent citations to those of the cited patents, as evidence of the extent to which knowledge spillovers are geographically localized. We find that citations to U.S. patents are more likely to come from the U.S., and more likely to come from the same state and SMSA as the cited patents than one would expect based only on the preexisting concentration of related research activity. These effects are particularly significant at the local (SMSA) level, and are particularly apparent in early citations.

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Topics: Knowledge spillover (51%), Knowledge sharing (50%)

5,589 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0048-7333(82)90016-6
Giovanni Dosi1Institutions (1)
01 Jun 1982-Research Policy
Abstract: The procedures and the nature of “technologies” are suggested to be broadly similar to those which characterize “science”. In particular, there appear to be “technological paradigms” (or research programmes) performing a similar role to “scientific paradigms” (or research programmes). The model tries to account for both continuous changes and discontinuities in technological innovation. Continuous changes are often related to progress along a technological trajectory defined by a technological paradigm, while discontinuities are associated with the emergence of a new paradigm. One-directional explanations of the innovative process, and in particular those assuming “the market” as the prime mover, are inadequate to explain the emergence of new technological paradigms. The origin of the latter stems from the interplay between scientific advances, economic factors, institutional variables, and unsolved difficulties on established technological paths. The model tries to establish a sufficiently general framework which accounts for all these factors and to define the process of selection of new technological paradigms among a greater set of notionally possible ones. The history of a technology is contextual to the history of the industrial structures associated with that technology. The emergence of a new paradigm is often related to new “schumpeterian” companies, while its establishment often shows also a process of oligopolistic stabilization.

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Topics: Technological transitions (67%), Technology dynamics (66%), Technological paradigm (65%) ... show more

5,155 Citations


Open accessReportDOI: 10.3386/W3301
Abstract: This survey reviews the growing use of patent data in economic analysis. After describing some of the main characteristics of patents and patent data, it focuses on the use of patents as an indicator of technological change. Cross-sectional and time-series studies of the relationship of patents to R&D expenditures are reviewed, as well as scattered estimates of the distribution of patent values and the value of patent rights, the latter being based on recent analyses of European patent renewal data. Time-series trends of patents granted in the U.S. are examined and their decline in the 1970s is found to be an artifact of the budget stringencies at the Patent Office. The longer run downward trend in patents per R&D dollar is interpreted not as an indication of diminishing returns but rather as a reflection of the changing meaning of such data over time. The conclusion is reached that, in spite of many difficulties and reservations, patent data remain a unique resource for the study of technical change.

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Topics: Patent office (71%)

5,045 Citations


Performance
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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20215
20201
20191
20061