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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10571-021-01066-7

The Gut-Brain Axis: Two Ways Signaling in Parkinson’s Disease

02 Mar 2021-Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology (Springer US)-pp 1-18
Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive and second most prevalent neurological disorder affecting the motor system. Cardinal motor impairment and α-synucleinopathy are the characteristic features of PD. Recently, it has been identified that the gut-brain axis is substantially regulated by the gut microbiome (GM) through an immunological, neuroendocrine, and neural mechanism. However, disturbance in the gut-microbiome-brain axis in PD might proceed to gastrointestinal manifestations intermittently leading to the motor system and the PD pathogenesis itself. The gut microbial toxins may induce the production of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates in the enteric nervous system (ENS), which may proliferate and propagate in a prion-like-manner through the vagus nerve to the central nervous system (CNS); supporting the hypothesis that, GM might play a pivotal role in PD pathogenesis. Overstimulated innate immune system due to intestinal bacterial overgrowth or gut dysbiosis and the enhanced intestinal permeability may persuade systemic inflammation, while the activation of enteric glial cells and enteric neurons may contribute to α-synucleinopathy. Gut microbiota can bear a significant impact on neurological outcomes such as learning, memory and cognition. In this review paper, we summarize how the alterations in gut microbiota and ENS inflammation are associated with PD pathogenesis. The evidence supporting the causative role played by gut-associated dysbiosis and microbial byproducts, in the onset of PD is also discussed. We have highlighted the landmark discoveries in the field of PD particularly focusing on the gut-brain axis. A better comprehension of the interaction between the gut-brain axis, gut microbiota, and PD can usher in novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches.

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Topics: Gut–brain axis (63%), Dysbiosis (60%), Gut flora (56%) ... read more
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOMEDICINES9040346
30 Mar 2021-Biomedicines
Abstract: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) represents one of the most prevalent and potentially disabling side effects due to the use of anticancer drugs, one of the primary neuropathies detected is peripheral neuropathy induced by administration of taxanes, including paclitaxel. It has been demonstrated that gut microbiota is crucial for the therapeutic effect of chemotherapeutic drugs for inhibiting tumor growth and contributed to the pathogenesis of the CIPN. The use of nutraceuticals has receiving growing attention from the research community due to their phytochemical, biological, and pharmacological properties. It has been demonstrated that probiotic formulations may both reduce inflammation and modulate the expression of pain receptors. Our studies tested the efficacy of a probiotic formulation, SLAB51, in preventing paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Interestingly, our probiotic formulation was able to keep the gut integrity, preserving its functionality, in CIPN-mice, moreover, it prevented the mechanical and cold hypersensitivity induced in paclitaxel-mice. Additionally, ex-vivo analysis showed that in CIPN-mice the pro-biotic treatment increased the expression of opioid and cannabinoid receptors in spinal cord, it prevented in the reduction in nerve fiber damage in the paws and modulated the serum proinflammatory cytokines concentration. On basis of these data, the use of this specific probiotic formulation may represent a valid adjuvant agent to paclitaxel, useful and not toxic for long-lasting therapies.

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Topics: Peripheral neuropathy (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/17590914211016217
Yongbo Kang1, Xing Kang1, Hongfang Zhang1, Qingqing Liu1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
29 May 2021-Asn Neuro
Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) ranks the second place among neurodegenerative diseases in terms of its morbidity, which affects 1-2% people aged over 65 years. In addition to genetics, some environmental factors may exert vital parts in PD occurrence as well. At present, more and more studies are conducted to elucidate the association between gut microbial dysbiosis and the incidence of PD. Gut microbial dysbiosis has a certain effect on both the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS), which indicates that there is a gut-microbiota-brain axis that induces CNS disorders. Some gut microbial strains are suggested to suppress or weaken the neuroinflammation- and gut-inflammation-immune responses, which suggests the protective and pathogenic effects of certain gut microbial species on PD progression. Therefore, gut microbiome may contain plenty of targets for preventing and managing PD. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may serve as a direct and useful treatment for PD in the future. Nonetheless, there is little available scientific research in this field. The present work reviewed the latest research to examine the association of gut microbiota with PD, and the future prospects of FMT treatment.

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Topics: Gut flora (57%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3892/MMR.2021.12374
Qingchun Lei1, Tingting Wu1, Jin Wu, Xiaogang Hu  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease amongst the middle‑aged and elderly populations. Several studies have confirmed that the microbiota‑gut‑brain axis (MGBA) serves a key role in the pathogenesis of PD. Changes to the gastrointestinal microbiome (GM) cause misfolding and abnormal aggregation of α‑synuclein (α‑syn) in the intestine. Abnormal α‑syn is not eliminated via physiological mechanisms and is transported into the central nervous system (CNS) via the vagus nerve. The abnormal levels of α‑syn aggregate in the substantia nigra pars compacta, not only leading to the formation of eosinophilic Lewis Bodies in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, but also leading to the stimulation of an inflammatory response in the microglia. These pathological changes result in an increase in oxidative stress (OS), which triggers nerve cell apoptosis, a characteristic of PD. This increase in OS further oxidizes and intensifies abnormal aggregation of α‑syn, eventually forming a positive feedback loop. The present review discusses the abnormal accumulation of α‑syn in the intestine caused by the GM changes and the increased levels of α‑syn transport to the CNS via the MGBA, resulting in the loss of DA neurons and an increase in the inflammatory response of microglial cells in the brain of patients with PD. In addition, relevant clinical therapeutic strategies for improving the GM and reducing α‑syn accumulation to relieve the symptoms and progression of PD are described.

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Topics: Substantia nigra (56%), Pars compacta (54%), Parkinson's disease (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22157900
Justin Chau1, Jun Zhang2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The role of the microbiome in immunology is a rapidly burgeoning topic of study. Given the increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy in cancers, along with the recognition that carcinogenesis has been linked to dysregulations of the immune system, much attention is now directed at potentiation of ICI efficacy, as well as minimizing the incidence of treatment-associated immune-related adverse events (irAEs). We provide an overview of the major research establishing links between the microbiome to tumorigenesis, chemotherapy and radiation potentiation, and ICI efficacy and irAE development.

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Topics: Microbiome (55%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10571-021-01155-7
Yvette Taché1, Juan M. Saavedra2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This special Issue presents comprehensive and state-of-the-art advances in supporting the crucial role of the bidirectional interactions between the Brain-Gut Axis in health and diseases with an emphasis on the microbiome-gut-brain axis and its implications in variety of neurological disorders. There are intimate connections between the brain and the digestive system. Gut microbiota dysbiosis activates the intestinal immune system, enhances intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation, leading to neuroinflammation, epigenetic changes, cerebrovascular alterations, amyloid β formation and α-synuclein protein aggregates. These alterations may participate in the development of hypertension, Alzheimer, Parkinson, stroke, epilepsy and autism. Brainstem nuclei such as the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) regulate gastric motor function by way of bidirectional inputs through the vagus nerve.

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Topics: Dorsal motor nucleus (61%), Dysbiosis (52%), Gut flora (51%) ... read more

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149 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0197-4580(02)00065-9
Heiko Braak1, Kelly Del Tredici1, Udo Rüb1, Rob A.I. de Vos  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Sporadic Parkinson's disease involves multiple neuronal systems and results from changes developing in a few susceptible types of nerve cells. Essential for neuropathological diagnosis are alpha-synuclein-immunopositive Lewy neurites and Lewy bodies. The pathological process targets specific induction sites: lesions initially occur in the dorsal motor nucleus of the glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves and anterior olfactory nucleus. Thereafter, less vulnerable nuclear grays and cortical areas gradually become affected. The disease process in the brain stem pursues an ascending course with little interindividual variation. The pathology in the anterior olfactory nucleus makes fewer incursions into related areas than that developing in the brain stem. Cortical involvement ensues, beginning with the anteromedial temporal mesocortex. From there, the neocortex succumbs, commencing with high order sensory association and prefrontal areas. First order sensory association/premotor areas and primary sensory/motor fields then follow suit. This study traces the course of the pathology in incidental and symptomatic Parkinson cases proposing a staging procedure based upon the readily recognizable topographical extent of the lesions.

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Topics: Cortical Lewy body (59%), Dorsal motor nucleus (59%), Lewy body (57%) ... read more

7,329 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-016-0001-8
05 Dec 2016-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Krabbe disease (KD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the lack of β- galactosylceramidase enzymatic activity and by widespread accumulation of the cytotoxic galactosyl-sphingosine in neuronal, myelinating and endothelial cells. Despite the wide use of Twitcher mice as experimental model for KD, the ultrastructure of this model is partial and mainly addressing peripheral nerves. More details are requested to elucidate the basis of the motor defects, which are the first to appear during KD onset. Here we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to focus on the alterations produced by KD in the lower motor system at postnatal day 15 (P15), a nearly asymptomatic stage, and in the juvenile P30 mouse. We find mild effects on motorneuron soma, severe ones on sciatic nerves and very severe effects on nerve terminals and neuromuscular junctions at P30, with peripheral damage being already detectable at P15. Finally, we find that the gastrocnemius muscle undergoes atrophy and structural changes that are independent of denervation at P15. Our data further characterize the ultrastructural analysis of the KD mouse model, and support recent theories of a dying-back mechanism for neuronal degeneration, which is independent of demyelination.

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Topics: Krabbe disease (55%), Denervation (54%), Galactosylceramidase (53%) ... read more

6,312 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2010.01.022
Osamu Takeuchi1, Shizuo Akira1Institutions (1)
19 Mar 2010-Cell
Abstract: Infection of cells by microorganisms activates the inflammatory response. The initial sensing of infection is mediated by innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors. The intracellular signaling cascades triggered by these PRRs lead to transcriptional expression of inflammatory mediators that coordinate the elimination of pathogens and infected cells. However, aberrant activation of this system leads to immunodeficiency, septic shock, or induction of autoimmunity. In this Review, we discuss the role of PRRs, their signaling pathways, and how they control inflammatory responses.

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Topics: Immune receptor (64%), Pattern recognition receptor (60%), NOD-like receptor (60%) ... read more

5,827 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE09944
12 May 2011-Nature
Abstract: Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust clusters (referred to as enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent specific. We also confirmed the enterotypes in two published, larger cohorts, indicating that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. This indicates further the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis to understand microbial communities. Although individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties. For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers.

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Topics: Enterotype (64%), Microbiome (53%), Human Microbiome Project (52%)

4,597 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRN3346
John F. Cryan1, Timothy G. Dinan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed the rise of the gut microbiota as a major topic of research interest in biology. Studies are revealing how variations and changes in the composition of the gut microbiota influence normal physiology and contribute to diseases ranging from inflammation to obesity. Accumulating data now indicate that the gut microbiota also communicates with the CNS — possibly through neural, endocrine and immune pathways — and thereby influences brain function and behaviour. Studies in germ-free animals and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic bacteria or antibiotic drugs suggest a role for the gut microbiota in the regulation of anxiety, mood, cognition and pain. Thus, the emerging concept of a microbiota-gut-brain axis suggests that modulation of the gut microbiota may be a tractable strategy for developing novel therapeutics for complex CNS disorders.

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Topics: Gut flora (59%), Gut–brain axis (57%)

2,446 Citations


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