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Journal Article

The habitual criminal

01 Oct 1914-The Eugenics Review (Oliver and Boyd)-Vol. 6, Iss: 3, pp 204-218
TL;DR: No wonder you activities are, reading will be always needed, it is not only to fulfil the duties that you need to finish in deadline time, but also to encourage your mind and thoughts.
Abstract: No wonder you activities are, reading will be always needed. It is not only to fulfil the duties that you need to finish in deadline time. Reading will encourage your mind and thoughts. Of course, reading will greatly develop your experiences about everything. Reading habitual criminal is also a way as one of the collective books that gives many advantages. The advantages are not only for you, but for the other peoples with those meaningful benefits.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Longitudinal research involves study, over time, of a group of people, or of samples from the same population, using records, interviews, or both as discussed by the authors, which are especially useful.
Abstract: Longitudinal research involves study, over time, of a group of people, or of samples from the same population, using records, interviews, or both. Studies which extend over a long period, which are prospective, and which include interviews with the subjects are especially useful. The longitudinal method has been used to investigate criminal careers, especially the incidence and prevalence of official delinquency at different ages, the peak age for convictions, the relationship between juvenile delinquency and adult crime, and offense specialization. It has also been used to predict the onset of convictions, recidivism, and the ending of criminal careers; to study the effects of penal treatments and other events such as marriage on delinquency; and to investigate the transmission of criminality from one generation to the next. Longitudinal and cross-sectional methods each have a part to play in research into crime and delinquency and each has its advantages and disadvantages. Major methodological questions...

122 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Robert S. Albert1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show how the family position of gifted children can put them in alignment with selected family experiences, socialization, and motivations that help prepare them for particular careers; secondly, they show that often an unanticipated event such as the death of older siblings and/or a parent is not necessarily an impediment to this growth but can be an opportunity and a challenge to healthy ego development.
Abstract: There are two basic transformations in the achievement of eminence. The first is that of intellectual giftedness to creative giftedness (Albert, 1979); the second, even more important, is the transformation of this intelligent creativeness into a combination of talent, drive, and values that &dquo;succeed.&dquo; The transformation of early giftedness into adult eminence is one of the most enthralling and secretive processes of human development. Because its occurrence is relatively difficult to predict, it does not mean one should appeal to shopworn explanations such as &dquo;luck,&dquo; &dquo;breaks,&dquo; &dquo;knowing the right people,&dquo; &dquo;genius,&dquo; or other cliche. The attainment of eminence, although difficult to predict, is not without rational, developmental aspects (Albert, 1975). In this paper I wish to show how the family position of gifted children can put them in alignment with selected family experiences, socialization, and motivations that help prepare them for particular careers; secondly, I wish to show that often an unanticipated event such as the death of older siblings and/or a parent is not necessarily an impediment to this growth but can be an opportunity and a challenge to healthy ego development. The means and the direction in which these traumatic experiences influence

111 citations


Cites background from "The habitual criminal"

  • ...appear (Andry, 1963; Glueck & Glueck, 1934; Morris, 1951) that the middle and the last birth-orders are overrepresented among a variety of antisocial samples....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A cluster of dangerous offender laws B ~L which were recently introduced into a number of English-speaking societies are discussed in this article. But the authors do not discuss the legal aspects of these laws.
Abstract: HAT IS the significance of the cluster of dangerous offender laws B ~L which were recently introduced into a number of English-speaking societies? These include the Victorian State Sentencing (Amendment) Act 1993 and the Community Protection Act 1990; the Washington State Sexual Predator Law 1989; the Canadian federal legislation of 1993 the Corrections and Conditional Release Act; and the New Zealand Criminal Justice Amendment Act 1993. The laws themselves are united around the following common themes:’ those judged to be ’dangerous’ must be (i) repeat violent/sexual offenders and (ii) be thought likely to commit such crimes again in the future as, for example, in the justification for the Canadian legislation: ’in order for the

26 citations


Cites background from "The habitual criminal"

  • ...This now enabled the deficiencies of the petty thieves and the like to be reclassified as signs of personal ’inadequacy’ or ’immaturity’ (Taylor, 1960), rather than as features of...

    [...]

  • ...This now enabled the deficiencies of the petty thieves and the like to be reclassified as signs of personal ’inadequacy’ or ’immaturity’ (Taylor, 1960), rather than as features of some degenerative throwback, which is how they had been perceived in some of the earlier accounts of recidivism (see,…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
John Pratt1
TL;DR: For much of the twentieth century the punishment of offenders in modern society came to be administered on a scientific, rational basis with policy driven largely by expert knowledge as mentioned in this paper, and the anonymity of the prison, as a place for reflection and rehabilitation, steadily replaced the pre-modern drama and spectacle of punishment to the human body.
Abstract: For much of the twentieth century the punishment of offenders in modern society came to be administered on a scientific, rational basis with policy driven largely by expert knowledge. The anonymity of the prison, as a place for reflection and rehabilitation, steadily replaced the pre-modern drama and spectacle of punishment to the human body. Recently, though, some modern societies (particularly those in the Anglophone world) have seen recourse to more expressive and severe penalties, driven more by public opinion than by expert knowledge. Other modern societies, however (particularly the Scandinavian countries) remain largely immune to these trends. This article outlines and explores these contrasting trends and developments and uses Norbert Elias's work on the civilizing process to explain them.

21 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined modes of perpetual penal confinement, which are combinations of sanctions and practices that result in holding people in state custody permanently, and pointed out the significant role that perpetual confinement has played in influential theories of criminal justice.
Abstract: Scholars now recognize life imprisonment without parole (LWOP) as a defining feature of contemporary American punishment. As LWOP becomes topical, it draws attention to a significant, more general phenomenon: the growth of state-sanctioned policies and practices by which prisoners face the remainder of their lives in prison. This article seeks to expand perspectives on contemporary punishment by looking closely at how lifetime incarceration took shape historically in different political projects and penal systems. Drawing from primary materials and a comprehensive review of secondary historical literature, I examine modes of perpetual penal confinement: combinations of sanctions and practices that result in holding people in state custody permanently. Interpreting classic penological paradigms anew, the article illuminates the significant role that perpetual confinement has played in influential theories of criminal justice and shows how it has proved a versatile tool for social control and prison administration across diverse penal schemes, largely because of its unique temporal character. The article concludes with a diagnosis of contemporary American punishment, suggesting that LWOP—beyond being a cruel and exclusionary penalty—is symptomatic of a system in which imprisonment until death has become uniquely ordinary.

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The National Research Council published Criminal Careers and Career Criminals as discussed by the authors, which reviewed research on the initiation, continuation, and termination of individual offending patterns over a lifetime, otherwise known as criminal careers.
Abstract: Almost 30 years ago, the National Research Council published Criminal Careers and “Career Criminals.” This report reviewed research on the initiation, continuation, and termination of individual offending patterns over a lifetime, otherwise known as criminal careers. The landmark report set in motion a research agenda focused on how antisocial behavior rises and falls during a lifetime and the antecedents to those patterns. But what about the report’s policy implications for the criminal justice system? Did the report have any impact on criminal justice operations? This article argues that it is difficult to ascertain the report’s direct impact, in part, because of the crime and criminal justice climate that was pervasive at the time of the report’s release. Indirect impacts of the report, however, are plausible. And although unintended, the report may have accentuated short-term attention to individual explanations of criminal behavior and individual-focused crime control policies, to the exclusion of so...

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: "Alcoholic offenders" was taken to denote those individuals shown in the prison register as convicted of being "drunk and disorderly" or of "drinking methylated spirits" and "Serious offenders" connoted prisoners convicted of other crimes such as "breaking and entering".
Abstract: \"Alcoholic offenders\" was taken to denote those individuals shown in the prison register as convicted of being \"drunk and disorderly\" or of \"drinking methylated spirits\". \"Serious offenders\" connoted prisoners convicted of other crimes such as \"breaking and entering\", without regard to their use or abuse of alcohol; these men were all serving sentences for a duration of longer than six months. Data were obtained from prison documents, in addition to physical and psychiatric examinations made of alcoholic offenders. Psychiatric examinations consisted of individual interviews, each lasting some 45 minutes.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Binet-Simon test has been used to assess the intelligence of offenders in the U.S. as discussed by the authors, finding that 50 per cent of Offenders had been diagnosed as feeble-minded in the period 1910-1914, whereas only 2% had been'so classified in the 1925-1928 period.
Abstract: IN THE second decade of this century it was thought on both sides of the Atlantic that a major cause of crime was the low intelligence of ottenders. In England in 1913, C; B. Goring wrote: \"The one vital mental constitutional factor in the etiology of crime is defective intelligence\"; and Goring thought the more often a man was convicted the less intelligent he was likely to be (Hibbert, 1963). In America in 1919 H. H. Goddard wrote: \"It is no longer to be denied that the greatest single cause of delinquency and crime is low-grade mentality, much of it within the limits of' feeble-mindedness\" (Schulman, 1951). It was the advent of the Binet-Simon tests which made comparative studies of intelligence possible. Goddard, who introduced them into America, reported in 1912 that 25 per cent of the offenders tested performed in the reeble-mtnded range, but within two years this ngure had increased to 50 per cent (Halleck, 1968). And according to Brown and Courtless (1967) some studies in the first two decades of the century claimed that up to 100 per cent of offenders were retarded. Criticism of the tendency to see criminality as caused by, or highly correlated with, defective intelligence followed the standardisation of intelligence tests with army recruits in World War I and a growing awareness of the errors and inadequacies in test construction and administration. By 1924 Murchison was able to point to three major weaknesses of earlier studies, namely, an inadequate definition of retardation, over-estimation of the intellectual level of the population in general, and a lack of recognition of the importance of socio-cultural factors. Sutherland (1931) summarised the results of a survey in which all accessible reports relating to the intellectual level of the U.S. offenders were studied; the reports totalled 350 and covered assessments of approximately 150,000 delinquents and criminals in the period 1910 to 1928. He found that 50 per cent of Offenders had been diagnosed as feeble-minded in the period 1910-1914, whereas only 2{) per cent had been'so classified in the 1925-1928 period. The survey did not demonstrate that feeblemindedness was a major cause of delinquency. The variation in results was interpreted by Sutherland in terms of q.ifferences in methods and scoring employed by testers rather than as a change in the intellectual abilities of offenders. Studies by Burt (1925), Healy and Bronner (1926), Glueck and Glueck (1930, 1934, 1934a)\"McClure (1933), and Merrill (1947) reported respectively _8.1, 13.5, 20.6, 13.1, 34.1 (women), 27.4 (21.8 boys, 32.9 girls) and 23 per cent of the offenders studiedto be mentally defective.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a self-report survey administered to Wisconsin Circuit Court judges gathered information about these social processes that might be used to predict sentencing patterns, and the results strengthen the position that judges’ decisions are not outside of social pressures, and judges develop sentencing decisions that align with the viewpoints of others and interpretations of the legal code.
Abstract: Judicial sentencing decision research most often examines the legal, defendant, and judicial characteristics that predict incarceration and sentence length decisions. Often ignored are the social worlds of the courtroom and judge in how these relate to sentencing decision processes and outcomes. The general framework of symbolic interactionism, through the theories of expectation states and situated identity, provides a foundation to understand the social processes of sentencing. A self-report survey administered to Wisconsin Circuit Court judges (n = 74) gathered information about these social processes that might be used to predict sentencing patterns. The results strengthen the position that judges’ decisions are not outside of social pressures, and judges develop sentencing decisions that align with the viewpoints of others as well as interpretations of the legal code.

3 citations

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