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Journal Article

The habitual criminal

01 Oct 1914-The Eugenics Review (Oliver and Boyd)-Vol. 6, Iss: 3, pp 204-218
TL;DR: No wonder you activities are, reading will be always needed, it is not only to fulfil the duties that you need to finish in deadline time, but also to encourage your mind and thoughts.
Abstract: No wonder you activities are, reading will be always needed. It is not only to fulfil the duties that you need to finish in deadline time. Reading will encourage your mind and thoughts. Of course, reading will greatly develop your experiences about everything. Reading habitual criminal is also a way as one of the collective books that gives many advantages. The advantages are not only for you, but for the other peoples with those meaningful benefits.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Longitudinal research involves study, over time, of a group of people, or of samples from the same population, using records, interviews, or both as discussed by the authors, which are especially useful.
Abstract: Longitudinal research involves study, over time, of a group of people, or of samples from the same population, using records, interviews, or both. Studies which extend over a long period, which are prospective, and which include interviews with the subjects are especially useful. The longitudinal method has been used to investigate criminal careers, especially the incidence and prevalence of official delinquency at different ages, the peak age for convictions, the relationship between juvenile delinquency and adult crime, and offense specialization. It has also been used to predict the onset of convictions, recidivism, and the ending of criminal careers; to study the effects of penal treatments and other events such as marriage on delinquency; and to investigate the transmission of criminality from one generation to the next. Longitudinal and cross-sectional methods each have a part to play in research into crime and delinquency and each has its advantages and disadvantages. Major methodological questions...

122 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Robert S. Albert1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show how the family position of gifted children can put them in alignment with selected family experiences, socialization, and motivations that help prepare them for particular careers; secondly, they show that often an unanticipated event such as the death of older siblings and/or a parent is not necessarily an impediment to this growth but can be an opportunity and a challenge to healthy ego development.
Abstract: There are two basic transformations in the achievement of eminence. The first is that of intellectual giftedness to creative giftedness (Albert, 1979); the second, even more important, is the transformation of this intelligent creativeness into a combination of talent, drive, and values that &dquo;succeed.&dquo; The transformation of early giftedness into adult eminence is one of the most enthralling and secretive processes of human development. Because its occurrence is relatively difficult to predict, it does not mean one should appeal to shopworn explanations such as &dquo;luck,&dquo; &dquo;breaks,&dquo; &dquo;knowing the right people,&dquo; &dquo;genius,&dquo; or other cliche. The attainment of eminence, although difficult to predict, is not without rational, developmental aspects (Albert, 1975). In this paper I wish to show how the family position of gifted children can put them in alignment with selected family experiences, socialization, and motivations that help prepare them for particular careers; secondly, I wish to show that often an unanticipated event such as the death of older siblings and/or a parent is not necessarily an impediment to this growth but can be an opportunity and a challenge to healthy ego development. The means and the direction in which these traumatic experiences influence

111 citations


Cites background from "The habitual criminal"

  • ...appear (Andry, 1963; Glueck & Glueck, 1934; Morris, 1951) that the middle and the last birth-orders are overrepresented among a variety of antisocial samples....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A cluster of dangerous offender laws B ~L which were recently introduced into a number of English-speaking societies are discussed in this article. But the authors do not discuss the legal aspects of these laws.
Abstract: HAT IS the significance of the cluster of dangerous offender laws B ~L which were recently introduced into a number of English-speaking societies? These include the Victorian State Sentencing (Amendment) Act 1993 and the Community Protection Act 1990; the Washington State Sexual Predator Law 1989; the Canadian federal legislation of 1993 the Corrections and Conditional Release Act; and the New Zealand Criminal Justice Amendment Act 1993. The laws themselves are united around the following common themes:’ those judged to be ’dangerous’ must be (i) repeat violent/sexual offenders and (ii) be thought likely to commit such crimes again in the future as, for example, in the justification for the Canadian legislation: ’in order for the

26 citations


Cites background from "The habitual criminal"

  • ...This now enabled the deficiencies of the petty thieves and the like to be reclassified as signs of personal ’inadequacy’ or ’immaturity’ (Taylor, 1960), rather than as features of...

    [...]

  • ...This now enabled the deficiencies of the petty thieves and the like to be reclassified as signs of personal ’inadequacy’ or ’immaturity’ (Taylor, 1960), rather than as features of some degenerative throwback, which is how they had been perceived in some of the earlier accounts of recidivism (see,…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
John Pratt1
TL;DR: For much of the twentieth century the punishment of offenders in modern society came to be administered on a scientific, rational basis with policy driven largely by expert knowledge as mentioned in this paper, and the anonymity of the prison, as a place for reflection and rehabilitation, steadily replaced the pre-modern drama and spectacle of punishment to the human body.
Abstract: For much of the twentieth century the punishment of offenders in modern society came to be administered on a scientific, rational basis with policy driven largely by expert knowledge. The anonymity of the prison, as a place for reflection and rehabilitation, steadily replaced the pre-modern drama and spectacle of punishment to the human body. Recently, though, some modern societies (particularly those in the Anglophone world) have seen recourse to more expressive and severe penalties, driven more by public opinion than by expert knowledge. Other modern societies, however (particularly the Scandinavian countries) remain largely immune to these trends. This article outlines and explores these contrasting trends and developments and uses Norbert Elias's work on the civilizing process to explain them.

21 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first European settlement in Australia in 1788 was essentially for the purpose of establishing a penal colony to ease the crowding of English prisons, and very little of this could be described as criminological in its focus.
Abstract: The first European settlement in Australia in 1788 was essentially for the purpose of establishing a penal colony to ease the crowding of English prisons. With such a criminologically relevant beginning, it might have been expected that the systematic study of crime and criminals would have been established early in the development of the nation, but such was not to be the case. Only in very recent years has there been any detailed study of Australia's convict ancestry, and very little of this could be described as criminological in its focus. An exception is the biography of an early penal reformer, Alexander Maconochie, by the late Sir John Barry (1958) of the Supreme Court of Victoria. This work is widely regarded as the first serious contribution to Australian criminology, but it was preceded by The Habitual Criminal (Morris 1951) and some studies of Australian police systems. The dearth of criminological talent until recent years is probably best illustrated by the fact that the first two editions of a monumental tome on all aspects of Australian society (Davies and Encel 1965/1970) made no mention of crime, delinquency, prisons, or criminal justice. Even today Australia cannot claim to have an especially large community of scholars engaged in teaching or research in criminology, though there has been significant growth in the past twenty or thirty years. In the last five years, however, there has been a slight decline in the strength of most research centers. This growth and subsequent decline are sketched in this essay. Section I describes the major research institutions, Section II assesses the extent of governmental influence

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined age and gender sensitivities to Contingency Management and Token Reinforcement strategies on Self Control levels of remand home inmates in Nigeria, and found no significant difference on self-control levels of male and female was found as well as that of old and young clients.
Abstract: The study examined Age and Gender Sensitivities to Contingency Management and Token Reinforcement strategies on Self Control levels of Remand home inmates in Nigeria.The study adopted the quasi-experimental non-organized pre-test, post-test and control group involving 3x2 factorial designs. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Seventy two (72) clients formed the sample for the study. Three remand homes- Akure (Ondo state), Osgbo (Osun state) and Ibadan (Oyo state) were purposively sampled for the study. The clients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups and a control group. The first group was treated with Contingency Management while the second with Token reinforcement and the third served as control. Self Control Scale (SCS) was employed in gathering data and descriptive statistics, ANCOVA, and scheffe posthoc analysis were used to analyze the data. The result revealed that both Contingency Management and token reinforcement strategies were adequately effective therapies in enhancing self control levels of the clients. However no significant difference on the self-control levels of male and female was found as well as that of old and young clients, this implies that both male and females as well as old and young clients are sensitive to Contingency Management and Token Reinforcement strategies. On the basis of these findings, it was highly recommended that government at various levels should employ well trained counseling psychologies who are competent in the use of various behavior modification techniques in solving different maladjustment problems among our youths and clients should avail the opportunity of the training exposed to at various homes and realized that both male and female clients deserve the treatment while the old and the young clients need treatment equally. Though the level of their involvement on delinquent behavior differ from one another, however, both need adequate and qualified counseling psychologies in behavior modification techniques

1 citations

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