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Journal ArticleDOI

The History and Prehistory of Pearling in the Persian Gulf

01 Jan 2005-Journal of The Economic and Social History of The Orient (Brill)-Vol. 48, Iss: 2, pp 139-209
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an analysis and synthesis of historical and archaeological data on pearl fishing in the Persian Gulf, from the earliest possible references to the mid 20th century.
Abstract: The paper presents an analysis and synthesis of historical and archaeological data on pearl fishing in the Persian Gulf. The history of pearling in the region is reviewed, from the earliest possible references to the mid 20th century. Economic data from the 18th�20th centuries CE is analysed in detail, to de fine the economic course of the pearling industry during that time, and assess the impact on human settlement in the region. The archaeological data for pearl fishing are then examined, from the 6th millennium BCE onwards, and compared to the historical evidence. The results of archaeological survey in the Abu Dhabi islands region are then taken as a case study, and changes in settlement patterns are related to the historical trajectory of the pearling industry. It is observed that the regional economy became overwhelmingly dependent on the pearl trade in recent centuries, and was increasingly subject to the demands of the global market.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A wealth of recent studies, not previously synthesised, suggest that the peninsular littoral offered a rich resource base for thousands of years of human occupation in the region, and also that Arabia witnessed some of the world's earliest seafaring and maritime exchange activities, and played a role in Bronze Age maritime trade that has often been underestimated as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The Arabian Peninsula occupies a critical position at the intersect of several major Old World landmasses. Inland aridity and a major coastal perimeter have long made maritime activities critical to Arabia’s cultural trajectory. A wealth of recent studies, not previously synthesised, suggest not only that the peninsular littoral offered a rich resource base for thousands of years of human occupation in the region, but also that Arabia witnessed some of the world’s earliest seafaring and maritime exchange activities, and played a role in Bronze Age maritime trade that has often been underestimated. Maritime activities were closely linked to developments in agriculture, which not only fuelled trade and exchange, but were also impacted on by the dispersal of domesticates along early maritime corridors. While regional specialisation has to some degree prevented consideration of the maritime prehistory of the peninsula as a whole, it is clear that there are interesting parallels, as well as important differences, between cultural trajectories in different parts of the peninsula.

205 citations


Cites background from "The History and Prehistory of Pearl..."

  • ...There is also evidence for increasing uptake of activities like pearl-fishing, standardised jewellery production, deep-sea fishing, and intensive fish processing as early as the fifth/sixth millennia BC (Beech 2004; Beech and al-Husaini 2005; Carter 2005; Charpentier 1996; Popescu 2003)....

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: The Arabian/Persian Gulf is a geologically young sea bordered by eight rapidly developing nations and contains a diverse and interconnected mosaic of biologically and economically important ecosystems including mangrove forests, saltmarshes, seagrass beds and coral reefs.
Abstract: The Arabian/Persian Gulf is a geologically young sea bordered by eight rapidly developing nations Its marine and coastal systems contain a diverse and interconnected mosaic of biologically and economically important ecosystems including mangrove forests, saltmarshes, seagrass beds and coral reefs, among others, which contain substantially higher diversity than the surrounding arid terrestrial system Owing to the shallow, restricted nature of the Gulf and its limited freshwater input, the Gulf waters are characterized by extreme thermal variability and high salinity, and as a result, many marine organisms in this region are living near the margins of their physiological limits Over the past several decades, increasing pressure from rapidly growing coastal populations and from climate change have resulted in widespread degradation and loss of coastal ecosystems in the Gulf It is projected that population-related pressures will increase in the coming decades as coastal cities continue to grow, and that there will be an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme thermal events under climate change Dramatic management efforts are needed to reduce the cumulative effects of the various stressors affecting these vulnerable habitats if there is to be any hope for maintaining the function of these important and underappreciated ecosystems

82 citations

Book
Peter Magee1
19 May 2014
TL;DR: In this paper, the formation of Arabian society: 7000 to 3000 BC, Eastern Arabia from 3000 to 2000 BC, and the Bronze Age in western Arabia from 2000 to 1300 BC.
Abstract: 1. Arabia and the study of the ancient Near East 2. Ecological and environmental diversity in Arabia 3. The formation of Arabian society: 7000 to 3000 BC 4. Eastern Arabia from 3000 to 2000 BC 5. The Bronze Age in western Arabia 6. Eastern Arabia from 2000 to 1300 BC 7. Humans, dromedaries, and the transformation of ancient Arabia 8. Intensification and consolidation: Arabia from 1300 to 800 BC 9. Expansion and engagement: Arabia and the ancient Near East 10. Adaptation and social formation in ancient Arabia.

75 citations

Book
22 Dec 2014
TL;DR: The Other Saudis as mentioned in this paper traces the politics of the Shia in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia from the nineteenth century until the present day, outlining the difficult experiences of being Shia in a Wahhabi state, and casts new light on how the Shia have mobilised politically to change their position.
Abstract: Toby Matthiesen traces the politics of the Shia in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia from the nineteenth century until the present day. This book outlines the difficult experiences of being Shia in a Wahhabi state, and casts new light on how the Shia have mobilised politically to change their position. Shia petitioned the rulers, joined secular opposition parties and founded Islamist movements. Most Saudi Shia opposition activists profited from an amnesty in 1993 and subsequently found a place in civil society and the public sphere. However, since 2011 a new Shia protest movement has again challenged the state. The Other Saudis shows how exclusionary state practices created an internal Other and how sectarian discrimination has strengthened Shia communal identities. The book is based on little-known Arabic sources, extensive fieldwork in Saudi Arabia and interviews with key activists. Of immense geopolitical importance, the oil-rich Eastern Province is a crucial but little known factor in regional politics and Gulf security.

65 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on a relatively brief period during which managerial control over the human and natural resources of the pearling industry transferred from Dutch to British powers, and explore the interstices between success and failure and track such developments through the evolving contexts of colonialism and imperialism in India and Sri Lanka.
Abstract: The Gulf of Mannar—the shallow body of water between present-day India and Sri Lanka—was one of the largest sources of natural pearls in the world for at least two millennia. This dissertation focuses on a relatively brief period during which managerial control over the human and natural resources of the pearling industry transferred from Dutch to British powers. The late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries also witnessed a shift in political economic thought, as classical liberalism dislodged mercantilism as the prevailing framework for interpreting the relationship between the state and economy. The Company and Crown governments brought an assemblage of ideas to bear on the management and governance of people and oysters that sought to not only increase productivity but also fundamentally reshape the social, economic, and political foundations of the pearling industry. However, the attempt by British officials to extricate local networks and institutions from pearling operations was fraught with contradictions and seldom delivered on the promise of reform. Through an examination of key targets of government intervention—labor, markets, merchants, sovereignty, and corruption—this dissertation explores the interstices between success and failure and tracks such developments through the evolving contexts of colonialism and imperialism in India and Sri Lanka. Degree Type Dissertation Degree Name Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Graduate Group South Asia Regional Studies First Advisor Daud Ali

64 citations

References
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Book
Roger Cribb1
01 Jan 1991
TL;DR: In this paper, the invisible culture of nomads is discussed and the structure and location of nomad settlements are discussed. But the authors do not discuss the relationship between nomads and their domestic spaces.
Abstract: List of illustrations List of tables Preface 1. Introduction 2. Origins and definitions 3. Nomad pastoral economy 4. Residence, descent and territory 5. Nomads - the invisible culture? 6. Nomad architecture and domestic space 7. Ali's camp: a nomad household campsite 8. The structure and location of nomad settlements 9. Sariaydin Yayla 10. The lost world of Nemut Dag 11. Nomad archaeology: an assessment 12. Towards a model of unstable settlement systems References Glossary Index.

226 citations


"The History and Prehistory of Pearl..." refers background in this paper

  • ...At the very least, it can be argued that architectural elaboration reflects a trend towards sedentarization (Cribb 1991: 106-111), and the investment of time, labour and resources in building permanent structures indicates an intention to come back....

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Journal ArticleDOI

210 citations


"The History and Prehistory of Pearl..." refers background in this paper

  • ...A detailed examination of the industry is provided by Lorimer’s Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia (Lorimer 1908; Lorimer 1915), which contains an unprecedented quantity of qualitative and statistical data relating to the pearl trade....

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  • ...In the case of Zubara, lesser towns had existed nearby which were eclipsed by the new foundation (Huwailah and Ruwaidhah: de Cardi 1978: 191; Lorimer 1908: 1515; Lorimer 1915: 787; Facey 1987)....

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  • ...…pearl market of the Persian Gulf . . . if the pearl beds were to fail, the Shaikhdom would shortly be reduced to comparative insignificance” (Lorimer 1908: 245); Qatar: “the principal and almost exclusive source of livelihood in Qatar is pearl-fishing, supplemented in some places by the…...

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  • ...Iranian, Indian and Arab merchants moved their homes and businesses to the Arabian side, particularly Dubai, in direct response (Lorimer 1915: 2236; Lorimer 1908: 456, 1098)....

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  • ...This paper sets forth the archaeological evidence for pearling, and correlates it with the better-known literary and historical sources, including the abundant economic data provided by British and Indian government reports, East India Company records and Lorimer’s Gazetteer (Burdett 1995; Hughes Thomas 1985; Saldanha 1908; Lorimer 1908; Lorimer 1915)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1973-Iran

203 citations

Book
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: The History attributed to Sebeos is one of the major works of early Armenian historiography as mentioned in this paper, which traces the fortunes of Armenia in the sixth and seventh centuries within the broader framework of the Byzantine-Sasanian conflict.
Abstract: The History attributed to Sebeos is one of the major works of early Armenian historiography. Although anonymous, it was written in the middle of the seventh century, a time when comparable chronicles in Greek and Syriac are sparse. Sebeos traces the fortunes of Armenia in the sixth and seventh centuries within the broader framework of the Byzantine-Sasanian conflict. Comprising two volumes, part 1 (240 pages) is the translation and notes followed by part 2 (216 pages) which contains the historical commentary, this excellent publication will be of interest to all those involved in the study of Armenia, the Caucasus, the Eastern Roman Empire and the Middle East in late antiquity. It will be of particular value to Islamicists, since Sebeos not only sets the scene for the coming of Islam, but provides the only substantial non-Muslim account of the initial period of expansion.

200 citations