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Journal ArticleDOI

The History of Theophylact Simocatta

01 Jan 1987-Classical World (JSTOR)-Vol. 80, Iss: 4, pp 324
About: This article is published in Classical World.The article was published on 1987-01-01. It has received 131 citations till now.
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Book ChapterDOI
11 Sep 2008

38 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on the characteristic and non-specific arms of the Avar heavy cavalry by comparing the technical terms of armament attested in written sources with information found in the archaeological finds and pictorial representations.
Abstract: The paper focuses on the characteristic and non-specific arms of the Avar heavy cavalry by comparing the technical terms of armament attested in written sources with information found in the archaeological finds and pictorial representations. The data culled from different sources lead us to the conclusion that heavy cavalry must have played a decisive role only in the first part of the early Avar age when the Avars had frequently waged war against Byzantium. Although it did not disappear completely in the late Avar age, its significance decreased. More data are available on the arms of the heavy cavalry from the period prior to the collapse of the Avar Empire, but even so they are much fewer than those relating to the early Avar period. In the second half of the 8thcentury the Avar army must have used Frankish types of armaments (winged-lance and Frankish-type armour)

36 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Dec 2005
TL;DR: The coinage in the Roman world in the early fifth century consisted of a multi- denominational system in gold, silver and bronze as mentioned in this paper, and the coinages of most of the new states passed through two phases: a pseudo-imperial phase in which the coins purported to be issued with the authority of the current or some former emperor, and a national phase where the inscriptions and designs deliberately reflected the state's independence.
Abstract: Coinage in the Roman world in the early fifth century consisted of a multi denominational system in gold, silver and bronze. The coinages of most of the new states passed through two phases: a pseudoimperial phase in which the coins purported to be issued with the authority of the current or some former emperor, and a national phase in which the inscriptions and designs deliberately reflected the state's independence. In Gaul and Britain the silver coins in circulation were clipped down to reduce their weight and the few new ones struck in Gaul were produced to a much reduced weight standard. Only the gold coinage was produced on a moderate scale, and came to dominate the currency. Of the three denominations in gold are solidus, semissis and tremissis. The coinages of the Visigoths, Sueves, Franks, Burgundians, Anglo-Saxons and Lombards were essentially mono-metallic in gold, with some very limited and local issues of small silver and bronze coins (nummus).

34 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Sep 2008
TL;DR: The law of the early medieval Church, or canon law, turns out to be a disparate and lumpy mix, resistant to categorization in terms of later-medievel legal assumptions and modern ones alike as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The term “law” has a deceptive consistency. It may be said to result from “a particular political ideology or even cosmology.” Yet even within a given tradition, geographical setting, or institutional context, its applications and meanings are far from consistent. To study law in history is to study change. The subject of this chapter, the law of the early medieval Church, or canon law, turns out to be a disparate and lumpy mix, resistant to categorization in terms of later-medievel legal assumptions and modern ones alike. A canon in Greek is literally a yardstick, hence, a rule. The term stuck, in west as well as East. By 600, the canons issued by the great councils of the fourth and fifth centuries were widely regarded as authoritative. Thereafter, in the various provinces and kingdoms of the early medieval West, no single authority issued or taught or interpreted the rules of canon law. Bishops assembled in councils made law from time to time, legal collections continued to be made and circulated on private and local initiatives, and law was applied by bishops acting as judges. The situation was not so different in the East, and scholars nowadays are alive to the prevalence there, despite the concentration of evidence emanating from Constantinople, of provincial activity and diversity. In both East and West, canon law and secular law were associated in practice, and secular and ecclesiastical concerns overlapped in imperial legislation. For the Church, as for secular rulers in the West, the Theodosian Code (438) remained an occasional reference point for much of the period covered in this chapter, while in the East, the Justinianic Code (534) remained the basis of canon and secular law throughout.

33 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2009
Abstract: introduction Most centuries can be said to have been, in one way or another, a watershed for Byzantium, but the case for the seventh century is particularly strong. At the beginning of the century, the Byzantine empire formed part of a political configuration that had been familiar for centuries: it was a world centred on the Mediterranean and bounded to the east by the Persian empire, in which most of the regions surrounding mare nostrum formed a single political entity – the Roman (or Byzantine) empire. It was a world whose basic economic unit was still the city and its hinterland; although it had lost much of its political significance, the city retained the social, economic and cultural high ground. By the beginning of the seventh century, this traditional configuration was already being eroded: much of Italy was under Lombard rule, Gaul was in Frankish hands and the coastal regions of Spain, the final acquisition of Justinian’s reconquest, were soon to fall to the Visigoths. By the end of the century this traditional configuration was gone altogether, to be replaced by another which would be dominant for centuries and still marks the region today. The boundary that separated the Mediterranean world from the Persian empire was swept away: after the Arab conquest of the eastern provinces in the 630s and 640s, that boundary – the Tigris–Euphrates valley – became one of the arteries of a new empire, with its capital first in Damascus (661–750) and then in Baghdad (from 750).

33 citations