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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNUT.2021.626432

The Impact of Lockdown During the COVID-19 Outbreak on Dietary Habits in Various Population Groups: A Scoping Review

04 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Nutrition (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 8, pp 626432-626432
Abstract: Background: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, access to fresh food has been restricted, and people are spending more time inside and have limited their physical activity. However, more time at home may have resulted in some positive habits including an increase in cooking. The aim of this review was to assess dietary changes during the first lockdown. Themes and patterns were considered and associations with other lifestyle factors were assessed. Methods: Between June and July 2020, the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases were searched, and results were screened for eligibility based on title, abstract, and full text. The inclusion criteria of this search included: papers published (or in pre-print) in the year 2020; studies that investigated the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on diet; papers published in English. Exclusion criteria were as follows: papers examining dietary changes in those following a structured diet based on diagnosed conditions or dietetic advice; literature, systematic, or narrative studies reviewing previous research. Researchers agreed on the study characteristics for extraction from final papers. Results: Four thousand three hundred and twenty-two studies were originally considered with 23 final full-text papers included. Four themes were identified: dietary patterns, dietary habits (favorable), dietary habits (unfavorable), and other (includes physical activity levels, weight gain). A total of 10 studies reported an increase in the number of snacks consumed, while six studies found that participants increased their meal number and frequency during quarantine. Eleven studies reported favorable changes in dietary habits with an increase in fresh produce and home cooking and reductions in comfort food and alcohol consumption. However, nine studies found a reduction in fresh produce, with a further six reporting an increase in comfort foods including sweets, fried food, snack foods, and processed foods. Two studies reported an increase in alcohol consumption. In eight studies participants reported weight gain with seven studies reporting a reduction in physical exercise. Conclusion: The effect of COVID-19 lockdown both negatively and positively impacted dietary practices throughout Europe and globally, and negative diet habits were associated with other poor lifestyle outcomes including weight gain, mental health issues, and limited physical activity. Both in the short term and if sustained in the long term, these changes may have significant impacts on the health of the population.

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Topics: Population (52%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13072279
30 Jun 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: To limit the spread of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a nationwide lockdown started in Italy in March 2020. In this unpredictable situation, a cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was carried out by the Observatory on Food Surplus, Recovery and Waste of CREA Food and Nutrition Centre. The aim of this work was to evaluate how Italian habits changed during this period, the determinants of changes, and the effect on food waste prevention. In a sample of 2678 respondents, 62% showed low Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (AMD). During lockdown many of participants improved the quality of their diet, increasing their consumption of fruit (24.4%), vegetables (28.5%), legumes (22.1%), nuts (12%), and fish or shellfish (14%). Unfavorable changes were observed with the excessive consumption of sweets or pastries (36.9%) and comfort foods (22.7%), and a lack of physical activity (37.2%). The main novelty of this study was the examination of dietary changes identified by a cluster analysis. Respondents with generally high AMD improved their eating habits, while the habits of the respondents with generally low AMD remained unchanged. In addition, nearly 80% of respondents were sensitive to food waste. The study provides a useful contribution to the debate on nutritional recommendations in case of further lockdown.

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Topics: Mediterranean diet (52%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNUT.2021.671004
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate changes in dietary and lifestyle habits during the period of confinement due to the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ibero-American countries. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted with 6,325 participants of both genders (68% women), over 18 years of age and from five countries: Brazil (N = 2,171), Argentina (N = 1,111), Peru (N = 1,174), Mexico (N = 686), and Spain (N = 1,183). Data were collected during the year 2020, between April 01 and June 30 in Spain and between July 13 and September 26, in the other countries studied using a self-administered online survey designed for the assessment of sociodemographic, employment, physical activity, health status, and dietary habits changes. Most participants (61.6%), mainly those from Spain, remained constant, without improving or worsening their pattern of food consumption. Among those who changed, a pattern of better eating choices prevailed (22.7%) in comparison with those who changed toward less healthy choices (15.7%). Argentina and Brazil showed the highest proportion of changes toward a healthier pattern of food consumption. Peruvians and Mexicans were less likely to make healthy changes in food consumption (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.4-0.6 and OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8, respectively), when compared to Argentinians. Most respondents did not change their pattern of meal consumption, but those who did reduced their consumption of main meals and increased intake of small meals and snacks. Although most participants affirmed to be doing physical activity at home, about one-half reported perception of weight gain. Individuals with alterations in sleep pattern (either by increasing or decreasing sleep time) were more likely to change their diets to a healthier pattern. In contrast, individuals with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and those who reported feeling anxious were more likely to perform changes to a less healthy eating pattern (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.2-2.3 and OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4, respectively). In conclusion, although most participants remained constant in their eating habits, lifestyle changes and anxiety feelings were reported. Among those who changed patterns of food consumption, healthier choices prevailed, with differences between countries. However, there were alterations in the distribution of meals, with higher consumption of snacks and small meals. These results can be used to guide policies to prevent deleterious consequences that may affect the incidence of chronic diseases.

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7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13169251
18 Aug 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: The threat of zoonoses (i.e., human infectious diseases transmitted from animals) because of industrial animal farming may be receiving less attention in society due to the putative wildlife origin of COVID-19. To identify societal responses to COVID-19 that do address or affect the risk of future zoonoses associated with industrial animal farming, the literature was screened for measures, actions, proposals and attitudes following the guidelines of a scoping review. Forty-one articles with relevant information published between 1 January 2020 and 30 April 2021 were identified directly or indirectly via bibliographies from 138 records retrieved via Google Scholar. Analysis of relevant content revealed ten fields of policy action amongst which biosecurity and change in dietary habits were the dominant topics. Further searches for relevant records within each field of policy action retrieved another eight articles. Identified responses were furthermore classified and evaluated according to groups of societal actors, implying different modes of regulation and governance. Based on the results, a suggested policy strategy is presented for moving away from food production in factory farms and supporting sustainable farming, involving the introduction of a tax on the demand side and subsidies for the development and production of alternative meat.

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Topics: Biosecurity (52%), Sustainable agriculture (50%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13082698
04 Aug 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Lifestyle changes during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown have been previously examined, but there is limited understanding about changes after such restrictions were lifted. This study examines changes in lifestyle habits and body weight among the Japanese population with regard to the length of at-home hours both during (April to May) and after (September) the nationwide stay-at-home request compared to those before the COVID-19 pandemic (January 2020). An online survey was conducted in September 2020 involving 10,000 Japanese survey monitors, selected according to population distribution. During the stay-at-home request, 34% participants extended their at-home hours. More respondents in the group with extended at-home hours experienced an increase or decrease in total physical activity, snacking, food intake, alcohol drinking, and body weight than those in the group with nonextended at-home hours. Some of these changes had a trend according to age. The prevalence of most of these changes decreased when at-home hours returned to normal after the stay-at-home request period; however, increased alcohol consumption and increased or decreased body weight persisted. Our findings suggest that close monitoring for further health outcomes and age-appropriate measures to encourage favorable health behaviors is needed.

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Topics: Population (53%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.3233/MNM-210562
A. Özenoǧlu1, Ekin Çevik1, Hatice Çolak1, T. Altintaş1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Social isolation required by the pandemic has led to some changes in individuals’ eating and lifestyle habits.This study aimed to examine the change in nutrition and lifestyle habits of Turkish people during the COVID-19 outbreak and investigate the effects of individuals’ attitudes to healthy eating on this change.At the beginning of the pandemic, individuals over the age of 18 participated in this cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire. Demographic information (age, gender, education level, place of residence and occupation), anthropometric data (reported weight and height);nutritional behavior information (number of meals per day, changes in consumption of various foods, use of nutritional supplements, etc.) and changes in lifestyle habits were requested from the participations. In addition, the Healthy Nutrition Attitude Scale (ASHN) was used to determine the healthy eating attitudes of the participants.A total of 432 volunteers participated in the study. It was revealed that body weight increased in 38.0%of the participants and activity level decreased in 73.1%of them during the initial stage of the pandemic. Nevertheless, 44.7%of participants reported increased sleep time, 77.8%reported increased social media use, and 66.7%reported increased stress and anxiety. It was found that the most commonly used nutritional supplements during this period were vitamin C, vitamin D and multivitamin complex. Women have significantly higher ASHN scores compared to men (p < 0.001). The total ASHN scores of those whose body weight did not change and those who increased their activity level were found to be significantly higher. It was determined that as the age and education level increased, the healthy eating attitude increased. In this study, findings regarding the negative effects of the Covid 19 quarantine on the nutrition and lifestyle of the Turkish people are presented. However, those with a positive attitude toward healthy eating were observed to have better weight control and eating habits and stress management during the pandemic. Therefore, it is thought that the dissemination of healthy eating attitudes in society may contribute to the maintenance of physical and mental health in the event of a pandemic. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition & Metabolism is the property of IOS Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

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Topics: Social isolation (52%)

2 Citations


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34 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12967-020-02399-5
Laura Di Renzo1, Paola Gualtieri1, Francesca Pivari2, Laura Soldati2  +9 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: On December 12th 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) emerged in Wuhan, China, sparking a pandemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans (COVID-19). On the 24th of April 2020, the number of COVID-19 deaths in the world, according to the COVID-Case Tracker by Johns Hopkins University, was 195,313, and the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases was 2,783,512. The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive impact on human health, causing sudden lifestyle changes, through social distancing and isolation at home, with social and economic consequences. Optimizing public health during this pandemic requires not only knowledge from the medical and biological sciences, but also of all human sciences related to lifestyle, social and behavioural studies, including dietary habits and lifestyle. Our study aimed to investigate the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on eating habits and lifestyle changes among the Italian population aged ≥ 12 years. The study comprised a structured questionnaire packet that inquired demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, current employment); anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (adherence to the Mediterranean diet, daily intake of certain foods, food frequency, and number of meals/day); lifestyle habits information (grocery shopping, habit of smoking, sleep quality and physical activity). The survey was conducted from the 5th to the 24th of April 2020. A total of 3533 respondents have been included in the study, aged between 12 and 86 years (76.1% females). The perception of weight gain was observed in 48.6% of the population; 3.3% of smokers decided to quit smoking; a slight increased physical activity has been reported, especially for bodyweight training, in 38.3% of respondents; the population group aged 18–30 years resulted in having a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet when compared to the younger and the elderly population (p < 0.001; p < 0.001, respectively); 15% of respondents turned to farmers or organic, purchasing fruits and vegetables, especially in the North and Center of Italy, where BMI values were lower. In this study, we have provided for the first time data on the Italian population lifestyle, eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet pattern during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, our data need to be confirmed and investigated in future more extensive population studies.

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Topics: Population (56%), Mediterranean diet (51%), Public health (50%)

629 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU12061583
Achraf Ammar1, Michael Brach2, Khaled Trabelsi1, Hamdi Chtourou1  +56 moreInstitutions (27)
28 May 2020-Nutrients
Abstract: Background: Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to abate the spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on health behaviours and lifestyles at home is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020, in seven languages, to elucidate the behavioural and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the results from the first thousand responders on physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviours. Methods: Following a structured review of the literature, the “Effects of home Confinement on multiple Lifestyle Behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak (ECLB-COVID19)” Electronic survey was designed by a steering group of multidisciplinary scientists and academics. The survey was uploaded and shared on the Google online survey platform. Thirty-five research organisations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia and the Americas promoted the survey in English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese and Slovenian languages. Questions were presented in a differential format, with questions related to responses “before” and “during” confinement conditions. Results: 1047 replies (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%) and other (3%) were included in the analysis. The COVID-19 home confinement had a negative effect on all PA intensity levels (vigorous, moderate, walking and overall). Additionally, daily sitting time increased from 5 to 8 h per day. Food consumption and meal patterns (the type of food, eating out of control, snacks between meals, number of main meals) were more unhealthy during confinement, with only alcohol binge drinking decreasing significantly. Conclusion: While isolation is a necessary measure to protect public health, results indicate that it alters physical activity and eating behaviours in a health compromising direction. A more detailed analysis of survey data will allow for a segregation of these responses in different age groups, countries and other subgroups, which will help develop interventions to mitigate the negative lifestyle behaviours that have manifested during the COVID-19 confinement.

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Topics: Public health (50%)

589 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AMEPRE.2011.05.002
Natalie Pearson1, Stuart J. H. Biddle2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Context: Sedentary behavior is implicated in youth and adult overweight and obesity. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and weight status is often small or inconsistent, with few studies controlling for confounding factors such as diet and physical activity. Diet has been hypoth- esized to covary with some sedentary behaviors. It is opportune, therefore, to review whether dietary intake is associated with sedentary behavior in young people and adults. This may allow for better interpretation of the diversity of findings concerning sedentary behavior and weight status. Evidence acquisition: Published English-language studies were located from computerized and manual searches in early 2010. Included studies were observational studies assessing an association between at least one sedentary behavior and at least one aspect of dietary intake in children (aged11 years), adolescents (aged 12-18 years), or adults (aged 18 years). Evidence synthesis: Fifty-three studies, totaling 111 independent samples, were eligible for this review. Sedentary behavior in children (n19, independent samples24), adolescents (n26, inde- pendent samples72), and adults (n11, independent samples14) appears to be clearly associated with elements of a less healthy diet including lower fruit and vegetable consumption; higher con- sumption of energy-dense snacks, drinks, and fast foods; and higher total energy intake. Strengths of association were mainly in the small-to-moderate range. Conclusions: The association drawn mainly from cross-sectional studies is that sedentary behavior, usually assessed as screen time and predominantly TV viewing, is associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in children, adolescents, and adults. Interventions need to be developed that target reductions in sedentary time to test whether diet also changes. (Am J Prev Med 2011;41(2):178 -188) © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine

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Topics: Sedentary lifestyle (64%), Screen time (61%), Overweight (58%)

460 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/OBY.22861
01 Aug 2020-Obesity
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that youths with obesity, when removed from structured school activities and confined to their homes during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, will display unfavorable trends in lifestyle behaviors. METHODS: The sample included 41 children and adolescents with obesity participating in a longitudinal observational study located in Verona, Italy. Lifestyle information including diet, activity, and sleep behaviors was collected at baseline and 3 weeks into the national lockdown during which home confinement was mandatory. Changes in outcomes over the two study time points were evaluated for significance using paired t tests. RESULTS: There were no changes in reported vegetable intake; fruit intake increased (P = 0.055) during the lockdown. By contrast, potato chip, red meat, and sugary drink intakes increased significantly during the lockdown (P value range, 0.005 to < 0.001). Time spent in sports activities decreased by 2.30 (SD 4.60) h/wk (P = 0.003), and sleep time increased by 0.65 (SD 1.29) h/d (P = 0.003). Screen time increased by 4.85 (SD 2.40) h/d (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing these adverse collateral effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic lockdown is critical in avoiding depreciation of weight control efforts among youths afflicted with excess adiposity. Depending on duration, these untoward lockdown effects may have a lasting impact on a child's or adolescent's adult adiposity level.

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Topics: Screen time (52%)

350 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU12061657
Aleksandra Sidor1, Piotr Rzymski1Institutions (1)
03 Jun 2020-Nutrients
Abstract: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in late December 2019 in China, which later developed into a pandemic, has forced different countries to implement strict sanitary regimes and social distancing measures. Globally, at least four billion people were under lockdown, working remotely, homeschooling children, and facing challenges coping with quarantine and the stressful events. The present cross-sectional online survey of adult Poles (n = 1097), conducted during a nationwide quarantine, aimed to assess whether nutritional and consumer habits have been affected under these conditions. Over 43.0% and nearly 52% reported eating and snacking more, respectively, and these tendencies were more frequent in overweight and obese individuals. Almost 30% and over 18% experienced weight gain (mean ± SD 3.0 ± 1.6 kg) and loss (−2.9 ± 1.5 kg), respectively. Overweight, obese, and older subjects (aged 36–45 and >45) tended to gain weight more frequently, whereas those with underweight tended to lose it further. Increased BMI was associated with less frequent consumption of vegetables, fruit, and legumes during quarantine, and higher adherence to meat, dairy, and fast-foods. An increase in alcohol consumption was seen in 14.6%, with a higher tendency to drink more found among alcohol addicts. Over 45% of smokers experienced a rise in smoking frequency during the quarantine. The study highlights that lockdown imposed to contain an infectious agent may affect eating behaviors and dietary habits, and advocates for organized nutritional support during future epidemic-related quarantines, particularly for the most vulnerable groups, including overweight and obese subjects.

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Topics: Overweight (54%), Snacking (52%), Weight gain (51%) ... read more

331 Citations