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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-84577-Z

The incidence trends of liver cirrhosis caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis via the GBD study 2017

04 Mar 2021-Scientific Reports (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 11, Iss: 1, pp 5195-5195
Abstract: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has rapidly become the most common cause of chronic liver diseases. We aimed to explore the incidence and distribution characteristics of NASH by sex, region and sociodemographic index (SDI). We collected data, including sex and region, on NASH-related liver cirrhosis from the 2017 GBD study. The age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were used to estimate the incidence trend and distribution characteristics. Globally, the incidence of liver cirrhosis caused by NASH increased from 178,430 cases in 1990 to 367,780 cases in 2017, an increase of approximately 105.56%. The ASR of NASH increased by an average of 1.35% per year (95% CI 1.28-1.42). Meanwhile, large differences in the ASR and the EAPC were observed across regions. The middle-high SDI region had the highest increase among all five SDI regions, followed by middle SDI region. In addition, Eastern Europe, Andean Latin America and Central Asia showed a more significant growth trend of ASR. In contrast, the high SDI region demonstrated the slowest increasing trend of ASR, and the high-income Asia Pacific demonstrated a decreasing trend among the 21 regions. Liver cirrhosis has caused a huge and rising health burden in many countries and regions. In addition, with the growth of obesity, population and aging, NASH might replace viral hepatitis as the most important cause of liver cirrhosis in the near future. Therefore, appropriate interventions are needed in coming decades to realize early diagnosis and prevention of NASH-related liver cirrhosis.

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Topics: Population (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00281-021-00881-W
Abstract: CD4+ T cells play an essential role in orchestrating adequate immunity, but their overactivity has been associated with the development of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including liver inflammatory diseases. These cells can be subclassified according to their maturation stage, cytokine profile, and pro or anti-inflammatory functions, i.e., functional heterogeneity. In this review, we summarize what has been discovered so far regarding the role of the different CD4+ T cell polarization states in the progression of two prominent and still different liver inflammatory diseases: non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Finally, the potential of CD4+ T cells as a therapeutic target in both NASH and AIH is discussed.

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Topics: Autoimmune hepatitis (58%), Steatohepatitis (57%), Inflammation (50%)

1 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.14740/GR1448
Abstract: Background This study was designed to determine the epidemiological trends and adverse outcomes of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). Methods This retrospective interrupted trend study analyzed data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018 to identify adult (≥ 18 years) hospitalizations with a diagnosis of HPS. We highlighted epidemiological trends for HPS. Inpatient mortality, mean length of stay (LOS) and mean total hospital charge (THC) were estimated using multivariate regression trend analysis. Results We observed an increase in the total number of HPS hospitalizations from 1,565 in 2012 to 2,495 in 2018, with mean age ranging from 55.8 to 58.1 years. There was a trend towards increasing hospitalizations (P-trend < 0.001) with increasing mean age (P-trend = 0.003) for HPS. Whites made up most of the study population. The inpatient mortality for HPS ranged from 12.4% to 12.6%, but there was no statistically significant trend for mortality (P-trend = 0.534) between 2012 and 2018. Additionally, there was no change in both mean LOS (P-trend = 0.545) and mean THC (P-trend = 0.534) for HPS for these years. Conclusions Hospitalizations and mean age for HPS were on the rise. Inpatient mortality ranged from 12.4% to 12.6%; however, a statistically significant trend for mortality was absent.

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Topics: Trend analysis (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7759/CUREUS.17320
20 Aug 2021-Cureus
Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a fast-spreading epidemic across the globe and has serious implications far beyond that of a "benign" liver condition. It is usually an outcome of ectopic fat storage due to chronic positive energy balance leading to obesity and is associated with multiple health problems. While association with cardiovascular disease and hepatocellular cancer is well recognized, it is becoming clear the NAFLD carries with it an increased risk of cancers of extrahepatic tissues. Studies have reported a higher risk for cancers of the colon, breast, prostate, lung, and pancreas. Fatty liver is associated with increased mortality; there is an urgent need to understand that fatty liver is not always benign, and not always associated with obesity. It is, however, a reversible condition and early recognition and intervention can alter its natural history and associated complications.

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Topics: Fatty liver (63%), Cancer (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/LIVERS1030014
09 Sep 2021-
Abstract: Antifibrotic therapies for the treatment of liver fibrosis represent an unconquered area of drug development. The significant involvement of the gut microbiota as a driving force in a multitude of liver disease, be it pathogenesis or fibrotic progression, suggest that targeting the gut–liver axis, relevant signaling pathways, and/or manipulation of the gut’s commensal microbial composition and its metabolites may offer opportunities for biomarker discovery, novel therapies and personalized medicine development. Here, we review potential links between bacterial translocation and deficits of host-microbiome compartmentalization and liver fibrosis that occur in settings of advanced chronic liver disease. We discuss established and emerging therapeutic strategies, translated from our current knowledge of the gut–liver axis, targeted at restoring intestinal eubiosis, ameliorating hepatic fibrosis and rising portal hypertension that characterize and define the course of decompensated cirrhosis.

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Topics: Chronic liver disease (58%), Hepatic fibrosis (57%), Liver disease (55%) ... show more
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53 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32154-2
16 Sep 2017-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57·6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40·8–75·9 million [7·2%, 6·0–8·3]), 45·1 million (29·0–62·8 million [5·6%, 4·0–7·2]), 36·3 million (25·3–50·9 million [4·5%, 3·8–5·3]), 34·7 million (23·0–49·6 million [4·3%, 3·5–5·2]), and 34·1 million (23·5–46·0 million [4·2%, 3·2–5·3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2·7% (95% UI 2·3–3·1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10·4% (95% UI 9·0–11·8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862–11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018–19 228). Interpretation The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-to-date information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health.

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Topics: Mortality rate (55%)

8,768 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/HEP.28431
01 Jul 2016-Hepatology
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. We estimated the global prevalence, incidence, progression, and outcomes of NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PubMed/MEDLINE were searched from 1989 to 2015 for terms involving epidemiology and progression of NAFLD. Exclusions included selected groups (studies that exclusively enrolled morbidly obese or diabetics or pediatric) and no data on alcohol consumption or other liver diseases. Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis, overall mortality, and liver-related mortality were determined. NASH required histological diagnosis. All studies were reviewed by three independent investigators. Analysis was stratified by region, diagnostic technique, biopsy indication, and study population. We used random-effects models to provide point estimates (95% confidence interval [CI]) of prevalence, incidence, mortality and incidence rate ratios, and metaregression with subgroup analysis to account for heterogeneity. Of 729 studies, 86 were included with a sample size of 8,515,431 from 22 countries. Global prevalence of NAFLD is 25.24% (95% CI: 22.10-28.65) with highest prevalence in the Middle East and South America and lowest in Africa. Metabolic comorbidities associated with NAFLD included obesity (51.34%; 95% CI: 41.38-61.20), type 2 diabetes (22.51%; 95% CI: 17.92-27.89), hyperlipidemia (69.16%; 95% CI: 49.91-83.46%), hypertension (39.34%; 95% CI: 33.15-45.88), and metabolic syndrome (42.54%; 95% CI: 30.06-56.05). Fibrosis progression proportion, and mean annual rate of progression in NASH were 40.76% (95% CI: 34.69-47.13) and 0.09 (95% CI: 0.06-0.12). HCC incidence among NAFLD patients was 0.44 per 1,000 person-years (range, 0.29-0.66). Liver-specific mortality and overall mortality among NAFLD and NASH were 0.77 per 1,000 (range, 0.33-1.77) and 11.77 per 1,000 person-years (range, 7.10-19.53) and 15.44 per 1,000 (range, 11.72-20.34) and 25.56 per 1,000 person-years (range, 6.29-103.80). Incidence risk ratios for liver-specific and overall mortality for NAFLD were 1.94 (range, 1.28-2.92) and 1.05 (range, 0.70-1.56). Conclusions As the global epidemic of obesity fuels metabolic conditions, the clinical and economic burden of NAFLD will become enormous. (Hepatology 2016;64:73-84).

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4,181 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7
Gbd Disease, Injury Incidence, Lorenzo Monasta1, Luca Ronfani1  +8 moreInstitutions (1)
10 Nov 2018-The Lancet
Abstract: Research reported in this publication was supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the University of Melbourne, Public Health England, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, the National Institute on Ageing of the National Institutes of Health (award P30AG047845), and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health (award R01MH110163).

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Topics: Public health (63%), Mental health (53%)

3,736 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMAONCOL.2016.5688
01 Nov 2018-JAMA Oncology
Abstract: Importance The increasing burden due to cancer and other noncommunicable diseases poses a threat to human development, which has resulted in global political commitments reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases. To determine if these commitments have resulted in improved cancer control, quantitative assessments of the cancer burden are required. Objective To assess the burden for 29 cancer groups over time to provide a framework for policy discussion, resource allocation, and research focus. Evidence Review Cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were evaluated for 195 countries and territories by age and sex using the Global Burden of Disease study estimation methods. Levels and trends were analyzed over time, as well as by the Sociodemographic Index (SDI). Changes in incident cases were categorized by changes due to epidemiological vs demographic transition. Findings In 2016, there were 17.2 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.9 million deaths. Cancer cases increased by 28% between 2006 and 2016. The smallest increase was seen in high SDI countries. Globally, population aging contributed 17%; population growth, 12%; and changes in age-specific rates, −1% to this change. The most common incident cancer globally for men was prostate cancer (1.4 million cases). The leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer (1.2 million deaths and 25.4 million DALYs). For women, the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was breast cancer (1.7 million incident cases, 535 000 deaths, and 14.9 million DALYs). In 2016, cancer caused 213.2 million DALYs globally for both sexes combined. Between 2006 and 2016, the average annual age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 130 of 195 countries or territories, and the average annual age-standardized death rates decreased within that timeframe in 143 of 195 countries or territories. Conclusions and Relevance Large disparities exist between countries in cancer incidence, deaths, and associated disability. Scaling up cancer prevention and ensuring universal access to cancer care are required for health equity and to fulfill the global commitments for noncommunicable disease and cancer control.

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Topics: Disease burden (64%), Cancer prevention (62%), Disability-adjusted life year (62%) ... show more

3,484 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3
16 Dec 2017-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m 2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m 2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m 2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m 2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m 2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults. Funding Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.

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Topics: Underweight (56%), Childhood obesity (53%), Overweight (53%) ... show more

2,881 Citations