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The Indian Languages.

01 Jan 1969-
About: The article was published on 1969-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 9 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Languages of Asia & Applied linguistics.
Citations
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Dissertation
01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: In this article, an ethnographic study was conducted to explore the status of Punjabi language in our society by looking at the language usage and linguistic practices of native speakers residing in selected urban and rural areas.
Abstract: Pakistan is a land of linguistic diversity having more than sixty languages. Punjabi, along with its numerous mutually intelligible dialects, is an ancient language.It is mainly spoken in the Pakistani province of Punjab and Indian Punjab in the subcontinent.It is a member of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.The aim of this ethnographic study is to explore the status of Punjabi language in our society by looking at the language usage and linguistic practices of Punjabi native speakers residing in selected urban and rural areas.Ten families, five from urban area and five from rural area, participated in the study.The participants were selected on the basis of their educational level,marital status, monthly income, occupation, family background and the size of land owned by them.The theoretical framework which informs this research is the constructivist qualitative paradigm.The tools of data collection include semi structured interviews and recordings of informal conversation of the research participants.The analysis of the collected data reveals that in the urban areas, Punjabi language is not the dominant medium of communication among the research participants. The participants do not consider it important and worthwhile to maintain Punjabi language, as they do not see it as economically advantageous and profitable to them.It is just a part of their cultural heritage, but they do not use it for communicative purposes.In the rural areas, however, the research participants expressed a strong sense of association and affiliation with Punjabi language; Punjabi language is their dominant medium of communication with others; they consider Punjabi an inevitable part of their cultural heritage and identity; they support the idea of learning English and Urdu languages but not at the cost of Punjabi language.These findings suggest that language desertion is an urban phenomenon, as Punjabi language is not maintained by the urban research participants due to certain wider socio-political factors which have disrupted and distorted the status of Punjabi language while consolidating the role of English and Urdu in the society.

26 citations

Dissertation
01 Nov 2008

17 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2020
TL;DR: A Sanskrit specific OCR system for printed classical Indic documents written in Sanskrit is developed, and an attention-based LSTM model for reading Sanskrit characters in line images is presented, setting the stage for application of OCRs on large corpora of classic Sanskrit texts containing arbitrarily long and highly conjoined words.
Abstract: OCR for printed classical Indic documents written in Sanskrit is a challenging research problem. It involves complexities such as image degradation, lack of datasets and long-length words. Due to these challenges, the word accuracy of available OCR systems, both academic and industrial, is not very high for such documents. To address these shortcomings, we develop a Sanskrit specific OCR system. We present an attention-based LSTM model for reading Sanskrit characters in line images. We introduce a dataset of Sanskrit document images annotated at line level. To augment real data and enable high performance for our OCR, we also generate synthetic data via curated font selection and rendering designed to incorporate crucial glyph substitution rules. Consequently, our OCR achieves a word error rate of 15.97% and a character error rate of 3.71% on challenging Indic document texts and outperforms strong baselines. Overall, our contributions set the stage for application of OCRs on large corpora of classic Sanskrit texts containing arbitrarily long and highly conjoined words.

15 citations

01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, sociolinguistic research conducted among speakers of five AustroAsiatic language varieties in northwest Bangladesh: Koda, Kol, Mahali, Mundari, and Santali is reported.
Abstract: This paper reports on sociolinguistic research conducted among speakers of five AustroAsiatic language varieties in northwest Bangladesh: Koda, Kol, Mahali, Mundari, and Santali. These are collectively referred to as the Santali Cluster because Santali is the most populous and developed language among these five varieties. Linguistic variation within and across these varieties, long-term viability of each variety, and attitudes of speakers towards their own and other language varieties were investigated. The degree of intelligibility in Santali by speakers of the other varieties and the bilingual ability in Bangla of speakers from each variety were also studied. This research was carried out from November 2004 through January 2005 through the use of word lists, questionnaires, a Bangla Sentence Repetition Test, and stories recorded in Santali, Mundari, and Mahali.

9 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used both quantitative and qualitative approach to find out if the Telugu community in Klang Valley is still maintaining or has shifted/is shifting away to another language.
Abstract: The Telugu language is an Indian language commonly spoken in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Yanam. It is listed as the 15th the largest language in the world and known as the third most widely spoken language after Hindi and Bengali in India. Despite having a substantial number of speakers worldwide, in Malaysia the Telugu community who speaks this language is a sub-minority group of Indians which comprises only about 2.4 % of the total Indian population. The purpose of this study is to find out if the Telugu community in Klang Valley is still maintaining or has shifted/is shifting away to another language. Thus, this study aims to answer 3 research questions, which are to find out the language choice of the Telugu community in Klang Valley in domains such as home, social, entertainment, official and religious. Besides, it aims to investigate if there are any differences in language choice between the younger and older generation and finally it examines the main reasons for language maintenance or shift in the community. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative approach. A quantitative approach is conducted on 100 Telugu participants who reside in Klang Valley to obtain statistical information. To further strengthen the findings, interviews were carried out with 10 participants. The interviews focus on the reasons behind language maintenance and shift among the Telugu community in Klang Valley. The findings show that the Telugu language is slowly shifting away mainly to English among the younger generation as English is viewed to be very important for educational, economical and career advancement. However, steps for language revival have been taken by Telugu Association of Malaysia (TAM) and it’s slowly being revived among the younger generation. As for the older generation, the language and the culture are still strongly embedded in their life. In general the majority of Telugus in Klang Valley still have a high regard towards their mother tongue and culture.

8 citations

References
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Dissertation
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used both quantitative and qualitative approach to find out if the Telugu community in Klang Valley is still maintaining or has shifted/is shifting away to another language.
Abstract: The Telugu language is an Indian language commonly spoken in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Yanam. It is listed as the 15th the largest language in the world and known as the third most widely spoken language after Hindi and Bengali in India. Despite having a substantial number of speakers worldwide, in Malaysia the Telugu community who speaks this language is a sub-minority group of Indians which comprises only about 2.4 % of the total Indian population. The purpose of this study is to find out if the Telugu community in Klang Valley is still maintaining or has shifted/is shifting away to another language. Thus, this study aims to answer 3 research questions, which are to find out the language choice of the Telugu community in Klang Valley in domains such as home, social, entertainment, official and religious. Besides, it aims to investigate if there are any differences in language choice between the younger and older generation and finally it examines the main reasons for language maintenance or shift in the community. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative approach. A quantitative approach is conducted on 100 Telugu participants who reside in Klang Valley to obtain statistical information. To further strengthen the findings, interviews were carried out with 10 participants. The interviews focus on the reasons behind language maintenance and shift among the Telugu community in Klang Valley. The findings show that the Telugu language is slowly shifting away mainly to English among the younger generation as English is viewed to be very important for educational, economical and career advancement. However, steps for language revival have been taken by Telugu Association of Malaysia (TAM) and it’s slowly being revived among the younger generation. As for the older generation, the language and the culture are still strongly embedded in their life. In general the majority of Telugus in Klang Valley still have a high regard towards their mother tongue and culture.

8 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The paper proposes a Unicode-compliant information retrieval and representation (IRR) system viz.
Abstract: The paper describes the growth and development of open access repositories (OARs) in India. The paper proposes a Unicode-compliant information retrieval and representation (IRR) system viz. BURA (Burdwan University Research Archive) for Indian Universities. It has been developed using a number of open standards and open source software (OSS). This Unicode-compliant interface allows administrators to perform various system level operations as well as end users can browse and search resources in Bengali language. Also, describes the necessity of integrating Indic-script based SKOS-enabled subject access system (here DDC – Dewey Decimal Classification) into the proposed model in order to fulfil the subject search of the users. Finally, offers a single window search interface for harvesting metadata from multiple interoperable OARs.

7 citations