02 Mar 2021-Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford Academic)-Vol. 502, Iss: 3, pp 3264-3293

Abstract: We present 3D hydrodynamic simulations of neutrino-driven supernovae (SNe) with the PROMETHEUS-HOTB code, evolving the asymmetrically expanding ejecta from shock breakout until they reach the homologous expansion phase after roughly one year. Our calculations continue the simulations for two red supergiant (RSG) and two blue supergiant (BSG) progenitors by Wongwathanarat et al., who investigated the growth of explosion asymmetries produced by hydrodynamic instabilities during the first second of the explosion and their later fragmentation by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We focus on the late time acceleration and inflation of the ejecta caused by the heating due to the radioactive decay of $^{56}$Ni to $^{56}$Fe and by a new outward-moving shock, which forms when the reverse shock from the He/H-shell interface compresses the central part of the ejecta. The mean velocities of the iron-rich ejecta increase between 100 km/s and 350 km/s ($\sim$8-30\%), and the fastest one percent of the iron accelerates by up to $\sim$1000 km/s ($\sim$20-25\%). This 'Ni-bubble effect', known from 1D models, accelerates the bulk of the nickel in our 3D models and causes an inflation of the initially overdense Ni-rich clumps, which leads to underdense, extended fingers, enveloped by overdense skins of compressed surrounding matter. We also provide volume and surface filling factors as well as a spherical harmonics analysis to characterize the spectrum of Ni-clump sizes quantitatively. Three of our four models give volume filling factors larger than 0.3, consistent with what is suggested for SN 1987A by observations.

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Topics: Ejecta (56%), Supernova (52%), Type II supernova (52%) ... show more

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16 results found

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Abstract: Solutions to the energy-independent (gray) radiative transfer equations are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations of the \Ni and \Co radioactive decay \GR energy deposition in supernovae. The comparison shows that an effective, purely absorptive, gray opacity, \KG $\sim (0.06 \pm 0.01)Y_e$ cm$^2$ g$^{-1}$, where $Y_e$ is the total number of electrons per baryon, accurately describes the interaction of \GRs with the cool supernova gas and the local \GR energy deposition within the gas. The nature of the \GR\ interaction process (dominated by Compton scattering in the relativistic regime) creates a weak dependence of \KG on the optical thickness of the (spherically symmetric) supernova atmosphere: The maximum value of \KG applies during optically thick conditions when individual \GRs undergo multiple scattering encounters and the lower bound is reached at the phase characterized by a total Thomson optical depth to the center of the atmosphere \te \LA 1. Our results quantitatively confirm that the quick and efficient solution to the gray transfer problem provides an accurate representation of \GR energy deposition for a broad range of supernova conditions.

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Topics: Radiative transfer (51%), Compton scattering (50%)

72 Citations

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Karl Isensee^{1}, Lawrence Rudnick^{1}, Tracey DeLaney^{2}, J. D. T. Smith^{3} +4 more•Institutions (6)

Abstract: We used the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph to create a high resolution spectral map of the central region of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant, allowing us to make a Doppler reconstruction of its 3D structure. The ejecta responsible for this emission have not yet encountered the remnant's reverse shock or the circumstellar medium, making it an ideal laboratory for exploring the dynamics of the supernova explosion itself. We observe that the O, Si, and S ejecta can form both sheet-like structures as well as filaments. Si and O, which come from different nucleosynthetic layers of the star, are observed to be coincident in velocity space in some regions, and separated by 500 km/s or more in others. Ejecta traveling toward us are, on average, ~900 km/s slower than the material traveling away from us. We compare our observations to recent supernova explosion models and find that no single model can simultaneously reproduce all the observed features. However, models of different supernova explosions can collectively produce the observed geometries and structures of the interior emission. We use the results from the models to address the conditions during the supernova explosion, concentrating on asymmetries in the shock structure. We also predict that the back surface of Cassiopeia A will begin brightening in ~30 years, and the front surface in ~100 years.

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Topics: Cassiopeia A (69%), Supernova remnant (64%), Ejecta (61%) ... show more

46 Citations

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Matter Mixing in Core-collapse Supernova Ejecta: Large Density Perturbations in the Progenitor Star?

Abstract: Matter mixing is one important topic in the study of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) explosions. In this paper, we perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to reproduce the high velocity $^{56}$Ni clumps observed in SN 1987A. This is the first time that large density perturbation is proposed in the CCSN progenitor to generate Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability and make the effective matter mixing. In the case of a spherical explosion, RT instability is efficient at both C+O/He and He/H interfaces of the SN progenitor. Radial coherent structures shown in perturbation patterns are important for obtaining high velocity $^{56}$Ni clumps. We can also obtain matter mixing features and high velocity $^{56}$Ni clumps in some cases of aspherical explosion. We find that one of the most favorable models in our work has a combination of bipolar and equatorially asymmetric explosions in which at least 25\% of density perturbation is introduced at different composition interfaces of the CCSN progenitor. These simulation results are comparable to the observational findings of SN 1987A.

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Topics: Supernova (55%), Type II supernova (53%), Rayleigh–Taylor instability (53%)

15 Citations

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V. P. Utrobin^{1}, Annop Wongwathanarat^{1}, H.-Th. Janka^{1}, Ewald Müller^{1} +3 more•Institutions (1)

Abstract: Six binary-merger progenitors of supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) with properties close to those of the blue supergiant Sanduleak −69°202 are exploded by neutrino heating and evolved until long after shock breakout in 3D and continued for light-curve calculations in spherical symmetry. Our results confirm previous findings for single-star progenitors: (1) 3D neutrino-driven explosions with SN 1987A-like energies synthesize 56Ni masses consistent with the radioactive light-curve tail; (2) hydrodynamic models mix hydrogen inward to minimum velocities below 40 km s−1 compatible with spectral observations of SN 1987A; and (3) for given explosion energy the efficiency of outward radioactive 56Ni mixing depends mainly on high growth factors of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities at the (C+O)/He and He/H composition interfaces and a weak interaction of fast plumes with the reverse shock occurring below the He/H interface. All binary-merger models possess presupernova radii matching the photometric radius of Sanduleak −69°202 and a structure of the outer layers allowing them to reproduce the observed initial luminosity peak in the first ∼7 days. Models that mix about 0.5 M ⊙ of hydrogen into the He-shell and exhibit strong outward mixing of 56Ni with maximum velocities exceeding the 3000 km s−1 observed for the bulk of ejected 56Ni have light-curve shapes in good agreement with the dome of the SN 1987A light curve. A comparative analysis of the best representatives of our 3D neutrino-driven explosion models of SN 1987A based on single-star and binary-merger progenitors reveals that only one binary model fulfills all observational constraints, except one.

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Topics: Mixing (physics) (61%), Light curve (55%), Supernova (53%)

14 Citations

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Supernova 1987A: 3D Mixing and light curves for explosion models based on binary-merger progenitors.

Abstract: Six binary-merger progenitors of Supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) with properties close to those of the blue supergiant Sanduleak -69 202 are exploded by neutrino heating and evolved until long after shock breakout in three dimensions (3D), and continued for light-curve calculations in spherical symmetry. Our results confirm previous findings for single-star progenitors: (1) 3D neutrino-driven explosions with SN 1987A-like energies synthesize Ni-56 masses consistent with the radioactive light-curve tail; (2) hydrodynamic models mix hydrogen inward to minimum velocities below 40 km/s compatible with spectral observations of SN 1987A; and (3) for given explosion energy the efficiency of outward radioactive Ni-56 mixing depends mainly on high growth factors of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the (C+O)/He and He/H composition interfaces and a weak interaction of fast plumes with the reverse shock occurring below the He/H interface. All binary-merger models possess presupernova radii matching the photometric radius of Sanduleak -69 202 and a structure of the outer layers allowing them to reproduce the observed initial luminosity peak in the first about 7 days. Models that mix about 0.5 Msun of hydrogen into the He-shell and exhibit strong outward mixing of Ni-56 with maximum velocities exceeding the 3000 km/s observed for the bulk of ejected Ni-56 have light-curve shapes in good agreement with the dome of the SN 1987A light curve. A comparative analysis of the best representatives of our 3D neutrino-driven explosion models of SN 1987A based on single-star and binary-merger progenitors reveals that only one binary model fulfills all observational constraints, except one.

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Topics: Supernova (62%), Light curve (51%)

10 Citations

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165 results found

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Abstract: Matplotlib is a 2D graphics package used for Python for application development, interactive scripting,and publication-quality image generation across user interfaces and operating systems

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Topics: 2D computer graphics (56%), Computer graphics (55%), Python (programming language) (54%) ... show more

16,056 Citations

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Abstract: We present the piecewise parabolic method, a higher-order extension of Godunov's method. There are several new features of this method which distinguish it from other higher-order Godunov-type methods. We use a higher-order spatial interpolation than previously used, which allows for a steeper representation of discontinuities, particularly contact discontinuities. We introduce a simpler and more robust algorithm for calculating the nonlinear wave interactions used to compute fluxes. Finally, we recognize the need for additional dissipation in any higher-order Godunov method of this type, and introduce it in such a way so as not to degrade the quality of the results.

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Topics: Godunov's scheme (65%), Godunov's theorem (59%), Interpolation (53%) ... show more

3,698 Citations

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Abstract: The nucleosynthetic yield of isotopes lighter than A = 66 (zinc) is determined for a grid of stellar masses and metallicities including stars of 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25, 30, 35, and 40 M{sub {circle_dot}} and metallicities Z = 0, 10{sup {minus}4}, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 times solar (a slightly reduced mass grid is employed for non-solar metallicities). Altogether 78 different model supernova explosions are calculated. In each case nucleosynthesis has already been determined for 200 isotopes in each of 600 to 1200 zones of the presupernova star, including the effects of time dependent convection. Here each star is exploded using a piston to give a specified final kinetic energy at infinity (typically 1.2 {times} 10{sup 51} erg), and the explosive modifications to the nucleosynthesis, including the effects of neutrino irradiation, determined. A single value of the critical {sup 12}C({sub {alpha},{gamma}}){sup 16}O reaction rate corresponding to S(300 keV) = 170 keV barns is used in all calculations. The synthesis of each isotope is discussed along with its sensitivity to model parameters. In each case, the final mass of the collapsed remnant is also determined and often found not to correspond to the location of the pistonmore » (typically the edge of the iron core), but to a ``mass cut`` farther out. This mass cut is sensitive not only to the explosion energy, but also to the presupernova structure, stellar mass, and the metallicity. Unless the explosion mechanism, for unknown reasons, provides a much larger characteristic energy in more massive stars, it appears likely that stars larger than about 30 M{sub {center_dot}} will experience considerable reimplosion of heavy elements following the initial launch of a successful shock. While such explosions will produce a viable, bright Type II supernova light curve, lacking the radioactive tail, they will have dramatically reduced yields of heavy elements and may leave black hole remnants of up to 10 and more solar masses.« less

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Topics: Center (category theory) (60%), Supernova nucleosynthesis (58%), Stellar nucleosynthesis (57%) ... show more

3,488 Citations

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3,088 Citations