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Proceedings ArticleDOI

The Influences of Employees' Emotions and Cognition on IT Adoption: Some Perspectives from Iran

04 Jan 2012-pp 5152-5161

TL;DR: The aim is to explore the relationship between an employee's cognitive appraisal of an IT initiative, their emotional response and the processes they undergo when faced with difficulties in accepting IT adoption and change in an organizational setting.

AbstractThis paper presents an extended model of individuals' reactions to IT implementation initiatives. The aim is to explore the relationship between an employee's cognitive appraisal of an IT initiative, their emotional response and the processes they undergo when faced with difficulties in accepting IT adoption and change in an organizational setting. The paper presents the results of an interpretive case study based in Iran. According to the findings of the study, employees' evaluations of a new IT initiative can become an obstacle to change. The paper's first contribution is to provide a deeper understanding of the effects of an IT implementation on individuals' emotions and cognition. The second contribution is the use of the extended model in a real organizational setting in Iran, a country in which the importance of employee's reactions to technology change has never been considered as crucial.

Topics: Cognitive appraisal (55%), Cognition (51%)

Summary (3 min read)

Introduction

  • Information Technology and Systems (IT/IS) have now become ubiquitous in the developed world.
  • Relevant issues include communication and collaboration between people and organizations, inter organizational systems, and the effect of IT related change in organizational settings [25].
  • This has led some IS researchers to adopt empirical approaches which focus particularly on human interpretations and meanings [32].
  • The paper ends with a discussion of the results, conclusion, contribution for research and practice and suggestions for further research.

2. Personal Change, Employees’ Emotions

  • Robbins & Finley [29], when reviewing three kinds of change (global change, organizational change and personal change), put emphasis on the personal change and describe it as “little and micro changes that assail us on an individual level” (p.42).
  • Regarding employees’ response to change, Clarke [8] stresses that people are different in their reactions to change.
  • This implies that they have to experience the stages of personal change.
  • On the other hand, positive emotions such as enjoyment, pleasure and happiness have, however, often been referred to in IS studies [10][17].
  • In all situations of new IT initiatives, however, employees have to make sense of the IS/IT [22][26][28][15] in organizations in order to welcome the technology, go through personal change, cope with new practices regarding particular instances of IS/IT innovation and finally mobilize towards it [14].

3. Theoretical Framework

  • This model is based on Huy’s [16] change dynamics model at the individual level and its integration with Lazarus’s [19] stress theory .
  • This model gives insight into how changes in employees’ emotions and their evaluations of a situation during and after an IT implementation could dramatically affect those three components toward the realization of change.
  • Receptivity refers to employees’ willingness to consider change and recognize the legitimacy of such proposals.
  • Unlike receptivity, mobilization is the concrete actions taken by a person in the direction of change (adoption and use of IT) [16].
  • Concerning cognition in individuals, the appraisal process involves primary and secondary appraisals jointly.

4. Methodology

  • A broadly interpretive approach was adopted in this study [33] with the aim of understanding the context of the IS and the processes whereby the IS influences and is influenced by the social context [32].
  • This name is a pseudonym and used for protecting the confidentiality of this organization.
  • Data collection was conducted via semistructured interviews and document analysis.
  • Hence, in those cases, note taking was substituted for tape-recording.
  • It was decided to interview employees within the age range of 50 since people in this age group are more likely to: persist in old habits; be significantly affected by new IS/IT initiatives; and be more often associated with apparently stable and therefore unchangeable personal characteristics [13].

5. Case Study

  • The case study organization has both responsibility and authority for all aspects of sport-related events and issues throughout Iran.
  • It was selected for this research because it underwent three organizational changes over the past three decades, which is significant when compared to other government organizations in the same period.
  • The absence of definite milestones for IT implementation progress; adherence to traditional managerial approaches which were unfavorable to computerized work systems; and allocating inadequate budgets for effective implementation and employee training, also known as Such ambiguous strategies included.
  • It was perceived that these themes were the main concerns amongst employees and had influenced their emotions and evaluations of the computerized work system and consequently their IT adoption.
  • It is also noteworthy to mention that between the second and third perspectives (impartial compared to affirmative) some overlaps were also observed.

5.1. Technical Difficulties of Computerized System

  • Almost all of the respondents had negative evaluations concerning the technical part of the implementation (including both hardware and software) that had caused them to experience diverse emotions.
  • It just made everyone angry, when you were for example in the middle of something and recognized that the task you were working on had not been saved…”(Employee C).

5.2. Inadequate Training

  • Concerning the training, management had provided only some of the employees with computer training and others in the department were left on their own.
  • This decision had been made to push the system forward quicker but instead had negative effects on both groups.
  • Those who were not involved had observed the situation and made negative evaluations about it.
  • And in a pleased way: “To me the content and number of training sessions although were not excellent but I could say they were ok and I learned a lot.

5.3. Rumors

  • According to interviewees’ comments the importance of rumors and background conversations of change as a main source of creating negative attitudes towards change should be also taken into account by managers in advance since all the interviewees considered these conversations as problematic.
  • Concerning the effects of rumors and background conversations, one of the interviewees mentioned: “Rumors were the annoying part of the story because no one had any information about what was happening and you could hear two completely different rumors in less than half an hour!” (Employee J).

5.4. Management’s Unclear Strategies

  • Lack of support was another big issue for employees since after a few months they realized that management was not as eager as they were at the beginning about the IT implementation.
  • The findings of this empirical research also reveal that from the employees’ (both men and women) point of view, individual concerns (e.g. job security, base salary rate etc.) always take first place over social and organizational issues since individual concerns are highly related to employees’ personal lives.
  • It is assumed that negative comments derive from employees’ negative emotions about the situation stemming from their negative evaluations of the IT implementation and use.
  • By motivation it means (according to interviewees’ comments) employees perceived there were no point in using the system with all those hardware and software difficulties, no proper training and on top of it, lack of management support.

6. Discussion

  • Organizational change process in general, IT implementation, in particular, and specifically the course of IT adoption by employees, which is the focus of this paper, needs to be understood more from the employees’ perspective than from the management’s.
  • Primary appraisal is also concerned with the individuals’ well-being [18][19][21].
  • Similarly, employees’ secondary appraisal made negative evaluations of the situation (i.e. lack of available resources to cope with the new system as well as their lack of control over the situation), thus intensely and negatively affecting the mobilization phase and employees’ attitudes.
  • Latterly, the linkage between the receptivity phase and mobilization became loose and, since there was no learning due to passive acceptance of the computerized system by employees, very little progress was made.
  • The reason behind their actions, according to the interviewees, stem from their positive evaluations of the situation that subsequently generated positive emotions and therefore persuaded them to take steps (to some extent) toward the IT adoption.

7. Conclusion

  • The second contribution is the use of the extended model in a real organizational setting.
  • In the case study organization, however, little thought was given to those concerns.
  • In fact, there are varieties of evaluations that affect one’s emotion and motivation that jointly, make employees less receptive and not to be able to mobilize properly toward the realization and adoption of change.

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The Influences of Employees’ Emotions and Cognition on IT Adoption: Some
Perspectives from Iran
Armin Kashefi Dr Pamela Abbott
Brunel University Brunel University
armin.kashefi@brunel.ac.uk pamela.abbott@brunel.ac.uk
Abstract
This paper presents an extended model of individuals
reactions to IT implementation initiatives. The aim is to
explore the relationship between an employee’s
cognitive appraisal of an IT initiative, their emotional
response and the processes they undergo when faced
with difficulties in accepting IT adoption and change in
an organizational setting. The paper presents the
results of an interpretive case study based in Iran.
According to the findings of the study, employees’
evaluations of a new IT initiative can become an
obstacle to change. The paper’s first contribution is to
provide a deeper understanding of the effects of an IT
implementation on individuals’ emotions and
cognition. The second contribution is the use of the
extended model in a real organizational setting in Iran,
a country in which the importance of employee’s
reactions to technology change has never been
considered as crucial.
1. Introduction
Information Technology and Systems (IT/IS) have
now become ubiquitous in the developed world.
Information Systems encompass such diverse areas as
agriculture, manufacturing, services, education,
medicine, defense and government [32][25]. Over the
past two decades of IS research the focus has shifted to
encompass the relationship between IS and
organizations as a whole. Relevant issues include
communication and collaboration between people and
organizations, inter organizational systems, and the
effect of IT related change in organizational settings
[25]. Research on organizational change has shown
that change programs frequently face a series of
problems [14]. Related research in IS, has
consequently highlighted the importance of social
issues related to computer-based IS [32]. This has led
some IS researchers to adopt empirical approaches
which focus particularly on human interpretations and
meanings [32].
Inevitably, the introduction of a new IT generates a
multitude of expected and unexpected consequences in
the users’ environment [1]. These consequences are
interpreted and understood in a variety of ways by
users, triggering complex user responses. Different
theoretical perspectives have identified diverse
obstacles to change in such situations. For instance, the
tendency to hold onto old ways of doing things has
been perceived to be a major problem by top
management [14]. To date, however, little attention has
been given to understanding how emotions can
influence employees’ IT adoption and use. Emotions
influence our beliefs and attitudes and they help guide
our thinking, decision-making and actions [21].
Additionally, cognitive-based models (e.g. technology
acceptance model [9][10], the unified theory of
acceptance and use of technology [31], etc.) are
thought not to be able to capture the full range of
emotional reactions of users in order to account for
their relationship to IT adoption [2]. This has left scope
for integrating psychological perspectives into the
domain of IS to explore the relationship between
employees’ perceptions and interpretations of
technology, their emotional response and their
consequent adoption of technology.
This paper focuses on employees’ responses to IT
implementation (instead of organizational change in
general) in a government organization in Iran, and the
emphasis will be exclusively on the adoption of
technology by employees. The purpose is to examine
the individuals’ reactions to change by exploring the
relationship between employees’ emotions and
cognition that contribute to their IT adoption and use.
Thus, the paper will address the following question:
“How do different stimuli during an IT implementation
influence employees’ emotions and cognition toward
their technology adoption?” The paper has a twofold
contribution to the field of IS associated with
psychology. The first contribution is that it allows a
2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
978-0-7695-4525-7/12 $26.00 © 2012 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/HICSS.2012.41
5152
2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
978-0-7695-4525-7/12 $26.00 © 2012 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/HICSS.2012.41
5152

better understanding of individuals’ IT adoption by
going beyond cognitive-based models and focusing on
employees’ psychological perspectives. In doing so the
intention is to fill in the current gap in this area to some
extent and explore the consequences of employees’
cognitive and emotional experiences in a larger
framework. The second contribution is the use of the
extended model in a real organizational setting. In
other words, to date, only a few articles have partially
referred to these theories and models, combined them
with psychological perspectives and used them in
practice in a qualitative and interpretive way in the
field of IS. Most studies conducted to date have been
quantitative with the aim of measuring or predicting
behavior. Furthermore, this investigation has been
carried out in Iran, where little research of this nature
has been conducted due to a variety of reasons.
Additionally, much of the work done up to now about
this country has focused primarily on technical aspects
of IT implementation and development with little
emphasis placed on the importance of employees’
perspectives and interpretations of these
implementations.
The remainder of the paper is organized as follows.
The following section reviews the research on
employees’ personal changes, their emotions and the
sense making process associated with IT
implementations. Next is the theoretical framework
section, which focuses on an extended model of
individual’s reaction to IT implementation initiatives.
The research method is next described followed by the
case study. The paper ends with a discussion of the
results, conclusion, contribution for research and
practice and suggestions for further research.
2. Personal Change, Employees’ Emotions
and Making Sense of IT
Though something might be gained by a change,
something will also be lost in it. Robbins & Finley
[29], when reviewing three kinds of change (global
change, organizational change and personal change),
put emphasis on the personal change and describe it as
“little and micro changes that assail us on an individual
level” (p.42). Eriksson [14] similarly indicates that all
people who are affected by change will experience
some emotional turmoil. Bovey & Hede [4] also stress
that letting go of the old ways of doing things is not
only a cognitive process, but is first and foremost, a
sequential emotional process. Employee’s personal
change, hence, has become an important aspect of
research in the domain of IS associated with
psychology, where a range of strong positive attitudes
to strong negative attitudes has been identified
concerning their receptivity to change [28][14].
Regarding employees’ response to change, Clarke [8]
stresses that people are different in their reactions to
change. Some employees passively resist it such as
agreeing verbally but withholding information. Others
still embrace it while some oppose the change actively.
In addition to this, rumors and background
conversations regarding the change and future of both
the organization and employees compound the
difficulty of accepting the change [7][12][15].
The fact is, a proper acceptance of IT-related
change by employees necessitates them to be
personally altered to some extent and adopt new ways
of doing things. This implies that they have to
experience the stages of personal change. Bridges [6]
conceptualizes these types of transition into three
overlapping stages divided by clear boundaries, as
beginning with an ending and then going on to a new
beginning via a neutral phase (also referred to as the
transition phase). Moreover, Clarke [8] points to
employees’ pain levels and elucidates that these are
usually highest in the early stages of personal change
as people move from accepting the end of the past into
the transition phase. This stage often gives rise to
negative emotions among employees [20]. These
undesirable emotions experienced by most employees
can be categorized into four major groups: stress,
uncertainty, fear and anger, however, the first two are
considered significant [24][20][30]. On the other hand,
positive emotions such as enjoyment, pleasure and
happiness have, however, often been referred to in IS
studies [10][17].
In all situations of new IT initiatives, however,
employees have to make sense of the IS/IT
[22][26][28][15] in organizations in order to welcome
the technology, go through personal change, cope with
new practices regarding particular instances of IS/IT
innovation and finally mobilize towards it [14]. With
regard to this, Orlikowski & Gash [26] argue that an
understanding of peoples’ (employees’) interpretations
of a technology is critical to understanding their
interaction with it. In this sense making process, people
develop particular assumptions, expectations and
knowledge of the technology that help to shape their
subsequent actions toward it. Cognition and micro-
level processes at the individual level are therefore
keys to understanding the impact of new technology in
any IT-related organizational change [22][26][16].
Despite the fact that these interpretations of technology
become evident and are rarely reflected on, they
remain significant in influencing how actors in
organizations think about and act toward technology
[14][26]. In other words, little is known on the topic
under investigation in the domain of IS associated with
psychology and therefore the resulting gap can be
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addressed at least partially through this study. That is,
an understanding of how employees’ emotions and
cognition influence their receptivity toward technology
adoption can assist the development of a
contextualized professional practice [23], which is the
main motivation for conducting this study.
To conclude, in this section the paper briefly
reviewed and covered important topics concerning
IS/IT related organizational change from a
psychological perspective. In the following section the
theoretical framework provides further details about
how change initiatives could be divided into their
critical components.
3. Theoretical Framework
This paper presents an extended model of
individuals’ reactions to IT implementation initiatives.
This model is based on Huy’s [16] change dynamics
model at the individual level and its integration with
Lazarus’s [19] stress theory
(Figure 1). Although the
former model was proposed by Huy [16] and its likely
connection with stress theory was implied alongside
the explanation of that model, until recently there have
been relatively few studies, in an organizational
context, explicitly based on this integrated model. This
holds true specifically for studies in the domain of IS
associated with psychology which seek to use these
concepts jointly for better understanding of employees’
technology adoptions from a psychological
perspective. For instance, Eriksson [14] drew on Huy’s
model solely in order to explore the relationship
between change and emotion by focusing more on
organizational change as a whole. Unlike that
approach, this paper will provide insight into
individuals’ emotions and cognition with regard to IT
adoption by integrating Huy’s [16] model with
Lazarus’s [20] stress concepts and using the integrated
model as a theoretical lens to explore that relationship
explicitly.
The main reason for using the combined model is
to take advantage of both concepts jointly. To put it
simply, the first model (Huy’s dynamic model of
change) divides the change process into its three
critical components (receptivity, mobilization and
learning) and shows clearly how individuals go
through the course of change. The second model
(Lazarus’s stress theory) demonstrates how
individuals’ primary appraisals (subjective judgments
about the significance of a specific event) and
secondary appraisals (personal evaluations of coping
resources, constraints and options) affect their
receptivity to and mobilization for change
[16][18][21]. The joint use of these models allows for a
greater understanding of employees’ emotions related
to their perceptions and interpretations of change and
consequent reactions. As such, this approach is
consistent with Eriksson’s [14] notion that “a person’s
cognition, emotion and actions are intimately
interlinked” (p.113), that is, cannot be easily separated,
but need to be studied as an integral whole.
This model gives insight into how changes in
employees’ emotions and their evaluations of a
situation during and after an IT implementation could
dramatically affect those three components toward the
realization of change. Most literature in this domain
either mainly concentrates theoretically and
quantitatively on the variety of emotions and
perceptions that individuals/employees usually have
during organizational change initiatives
[18][19][20][21] while few point to the importance of
earlier mentioned change components [16]. However,
the relationship between the experienced emotions by
employees and the steps (receptivity, mobilization and
learning) in which they have difficulty in realizing
change has remained unclear. As a result, this study
differs from prior research in that the extended model
is intended to redress that imbalance and explore that
relationship. It is also noteworthy to stress that
although concepts such as emotions and feeling are
distinct [13], this study, in order to avoid confusion,
adopts Eriksson’s [14] approach and generally uses the
concept of emotion since it is not critical for the
purpose of this study to distinguish the subtler
differences among the terms.
In this model, receptivity refers to employees’
willingness to consider change and recognize the
legitimacy of such proposals. Receptivity as a process
shapes and is shaped by the continuous sense making
and sense giving activities conducted among various
members of an organization [16]. This phase is highly
affected by primary appraisal (the first step of
Lazarus’s stress theory), which is about employees’
Figure 1. An extended model of individual’s
reaction to IT implementation initiatives
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assessment of the significance of a new event for their
own well-being. Since emotions are reactions to the
meaning of a situation [21] and that meaning is due to
an individual’s evaluation of a situation [20], the
receptivity phase covers both employees’ emotional
and cognitive responses.
However, unlike receptivity, mobilization is the
concrete actions taken by a person (employee) in the
direction of change (adoption and use of IT) [16]. As it
implies, mobilization covers the action part of the
change process in which employees take steps toward
change. Mobilization depends on the time and
receptivity of others, support structures, systems and
skills. Moreover, mobilization is greatly dependent on
the receptivity phase. With regard to the Lazarus’
stress theory, mobilization is affected by secondary
appraisal, which refers to employees’ evaluations of
their own resources and capabilities for dealing with
the stressor [19][20][21]. The mobilization phase is
critical in moving toward technology adoption, since
the main challenge for individuals is often not a
problem of choosing cognitively but of taking tangible
actions. Those actions mainly derive from employees’
strong motivations and commitments to complete the
achievement regardless of great difficulties [16].
Regarding the learning phase, since employees
learn from their earlier experiences, this step may
affect their willingness to see the need for change and
to mobilize accordingly.
Concerning cognition in individuals, the appraisal
process involves primary and secondary appraisals
jointly. To put it simply, for the purpose of analysis
they are considered separately, however primary and
secondary appraisal go hand in hand as one evaluates
the importance of the event while the other one
assesses the available resources and appraises the
coping mechanisms. They both happen together, or
sometimes secondary appraisal occurs first and affects
primary appraisal and one’s motivation [21]. As to
motivation, it refers to means, ends and cognitive
concerns that are identified as goals in individuals [18].
Nonetheless, overlaps between motivation, cognition
and emotion make it difficult to separate and
distinguish their respective territories [19].
4. Methodology
A broadly interpretive approach was adopted in this
study [33] with the aim of understanding the context of
the IS and the processes whereby the IS influences and
is influenced by the social context [32]. A case study
approach was selected since it enables multiple
methods of data collection to gather information from
one or a few entities such as people, groups, or
organizations [3][34]. The research was carried out in
Iran in a government organization named the ‘P.E.
Organization’. This name is a pseudonym and used for
protecting the confidentiality of this organization. The
study was exploratory in nature [34] with the aim of
understanding how employees’ emotions and cognition
were related to their adoption of IT.
Data was collected by one of the authors, an Iranian
citizen, who was introduced to the participants as a
researcher. Data collection was conducted via semi-
structured interviews and document analysis. However,
some participants were unwilling to have their
conversations tape-recorded in spite of the assurance of
confidentiality presented to them. Hence, in those
cases, note taking was substituted for tape-recording.
Questions focused on exploring employees’ different
perspectives regarding the effects of IT-related
organizational change on their emotions and behaviors.
In-depth interviews were held with 10 middle-aged
employees (5 male and 5 female). It was decided to
interview employees within the age range of 50 since
people in this age group are more likely to: persist in
old habits; be significantly affected by new IS/IT
initiatives; and be more often associated with
apparently stable and therefore unchangeable personal
characteristics [13]. Older employees are said to
participate less in educational programmes and training
activities [29]. Each interview lasted approximately
one hour, and was conducted within a month during
the research fieldwork. Each interview was first
transcribed verbatim into Persian (the national
language of Iran) and then translated into English as
accurately as possible.
Data were identified, analyzed and reported using
the six phases of thematic analysis [5]: (1) becoming
familiar with the data (2) generating initial codes (3)
searching for themes (4) reviewing themes (5) defining
and naming themes and (6) producing the report.
5. Case Study
The case study organization has both responsibility
and authority for all aspects of sport-related events and
issues throughout Iran. It was selected for this research
because it underwent three organizational changes over
the past three decades, which is significant when
compared to other government organizations in the
same period. In the first two organizational changes,
the structure was transformed whereas in the last one
computerized work systems (new IT initiatives) were
introduced. Amongst all the organization’s divisions,
the Department of Sport’s (also a pseudonym)
development programme and budget were selected for
the purpose of this paper since it was one of the core
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departments for computerizing the work system.
Moreover, this unit had the criteria stated earlier (older
employees) which matched the study’s requirements.
As to the nature of the employees’ work, this division
is responsible for planning and forecasting the budget
for every sport federation in the capital and other cities.
Moreover, employees in this sector had to have good
computer skills in order to perform their jobs properly,
even if they came from different educational
backgrounds.
Prior to the new IT initiative, work processes were
completely paper based and manually driven. The
organizational structure was changed twice in order to
improve the workflow but the outcome was not as
effective as expected. Workflow issues included
managing information flows and communication with
other organizations especially international ones,
however, at the individual level employees were happy
with their routines. Although the work processes were
not fast and effective, there were no complaints.
After two structural changes within this
organization, management suddenly decided to
introduce IT to the organization in order to automate
the workflow and also to expand their communication
with other organizations nationally and internationally.
Concerns, however, arose at this point, as management
had no clear strategies toward IT implementation and
use. In other words, although at the beginning the aim
was to increase the pace of information flow and
efficiency within the organization, their ambiguous
strategies and the consequences of those ambiguities
prevented the organization from implementing the
system successfully. Such ambiguous strategies
included: the absence of definite milestones for IT
implementation progress; adherence to traditional
managerial approaches which were unfavorable to
computerized work systems; and allocating inadequate
budgets for effective implementation and employee
training. These resulted in slow uptake of the system
by employees.
Based on thematic analysis of the interviews, four
major themes were carefully identified to be of concern
namely: (1) technical difficulties of computerized
system, (2) inadequate training, (3) rumors, and (4)
management’s unclear strategies. It was perceived that
these themes were the main concerns amongst
employees and had influenced their emotions and
evaluations of the computerized work system and
consequently their IT adoption. Furthermore, and
despite some overlaps in respondents’ views and
comments, the employees’ explanations also revealed
three dominant perspectives they had about the IT
initiative. The first we have named the mainstream
view, that is, that IT implementation and use were
undesirable. These employees were unhappy and had
negative evaluations and emotions regarding the use of
the new system with reference to the four earlier-stated
concerns. The second dominant perspective we named
middle-of-the-road, since no specific supportive
attitudes nor negative evaluations of the situation were
expressed by this group. To put it simply, they were
impartial. However, a number of respondents were
happy about the new automated work system despite
the difficulties stated earlier and had used the system to
some degree. This group we have named optimistic
since they represent an affirmative perspective. It is
also noteworthy to mention that between the second
and third perspectives (impartial compared to
affirmative) some overlaps were also observed. In the
following section each of those four main concerns
based on the employees’ three perspectives
(undesirable, impartial and affirmative) will be briefly
reviewed.
5.1. Technical Difficulties of Computerized
System
Almost all of the respondents had negative
evaluations concerning the technical part of the
implementation (including both hardware and
software) that had caused them to experience diverse
emotions. As such, one of the respondents mentioned:
“Wasn’t it irrationally? When the system was not
ready and not reliable why so much pressures to use
it? What about the motivation we were supposed to
have? When you see no support, lots of technical
difficulties and no proper training, then who cares
about the new system? It just made everyone angry,
when you were for example in the middle of something
and recognized that the task you were working on had
not been saved…”(Employee C)
In contrast and in a neutral way another interviewee
responded:
“It was obvious for me that the system would not work
even reasonably, no proper training and lots of
technical difficulties, and no clear strategies… I don’t
know why my colleagues were angry about it, I didn’t
really rely on the system and instead I did my tasks in
the traditional way [paper work]…” (Employee A)
In a more positive way one of the interviewees added:
“The traditional work system was slow, but the new
system was faster despite the regular and often
frustrating technical difficulties it had, end of the day it
was ok and I accepted it that way, when you are on
your own you have no motivation, but it wasn’t too
bad” (Employee D)
And similarly, another employee replied:
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12 citations


Cites background from "The Influences of Employees' Emotio..."

  • ...Furthermore, stress is a well-known factor for low motivation and morale (Vakola & Nikolaou, 2005; Kashefi et al., 2012), decrease in performance and low job satisfaction (Schabracq & Cooper, 2000) and finally low quality services and poor internal communication (Vakola et al....

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  • ...Furthermore, stress is a well-known factor for low motivation and morale (Vakola & Nikolaou, 2005; Kashefi et al., 2012), decrease in performance and low job satisfaction (Schabracq & Cooper, 2000) and finally low quality services and poor internal communication (Vakola et al., 2004; Schraeder et…...

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  • ...Kashefi et al. (2012) in the same stream of research investigated the above-proposed relationship through an empirical study and pointed out the crucial role 23 and impact of one’s emotions and cognition towards their receptivity to and mobilisation for an IT-related organisational change....

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  • ...This allows users to recognise the legitimacy of such proposed IT-related changes, welcome the technology, go through personal change, cope with new practices regarding particular instances of IS/IT innovation and finally mobilise towards it (Eriksson, 2004; Kashefi et al., 2012)....

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  • ...…aspect of research in the domain of IS associated with psychology, where a range of strong positive attitudes to strong negative attitudes has been identified concerning IS users’ receptivity to and mobilisation for change (Eriksson, 2004; Piderit, 2000; Rusly et al., 2012; Kashefi et al., 2012)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Olaf Radant1
TL;DR: This work will analyse the previous work on these topics and demonstrate first conclusions regarding a way forward on how to develop new strategies and approaches in human resource management.
Abstract: The skill shortage is becoming an ever-increasing challenge for Information Technology IT departments. To allocate the resources in the best possible way is even more important. The challenge is to improve the company not only on the side of the organizational and process level, but to develop new strategies and approaches in human resource management. Only a symbiosis of these disciplines will enable relevant and indispensable employees to promote loyalty to the company. A frequent change of the work place, for a well-trained professional, is so long associated with normality until they find the best environment for their needs and expectations. These expectations are no longer just on a financial level. This work will analyse the previous work on these topics and demonstrate first conclusions regarding a way forward.

12 citations


Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2015
Abstract: We provide a review of the IT adaptation behaviors within IS research, addressing questions such as: what have we learned about this multifaceted phenomenon? who are contributors to the debate? and why does this topic matter? The article is intended to be insightful to faculty and students considering research on this emerging, intriguing yet complex topic of IT-related user adaptive behaviors. It is equally useful to instructors preparing lectures, managers and practitioners seeking to understand and assess the ‘state-ofthe-play’ as well as those who want to think about strategic management and investments in human capital. In this article we focus on IT-related user adaptation behaviors, reviewing past studies and proposing integrating views. It is both informative and provocative. Challenges to the value of IT adaptation behaviors research, divergent views, and new perspectives on adaptive responses are presented. It is hoped that the article will spark helpful conversation on the merits of continued investigation of IT alignment.

10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2011
TL;DR: The results indicate that a strong, positive relationship exists between the change process quality and the level of employees’ commitment to change.
Abstract: In the current competitive environment, managing organizational change successfully requires comprehensive understanding of change management concepts and processes as well as the implied drivers behind them. Information technology (IT) field is not an exception; growing interest exists for understanding organizational change and change management in the IT industry. Fast-paced changes in today’s IT and business environments are inevitable and the challenges associated with organizational changes are becoming more complex. This study aims to find at least partial answers to the question how employees’ commitment to change and the implementation quality of a change process affect achieving the goals and succeeding in an organizational change initiative. The study is conducted in two parts in a Finnish IT company providing complex IT solutions and services. The first part, the pilot study, identifies factors hindering employees’ commitment to change. The pilot study is followed by a quantitative main study, which investigates the relationships between employees’ level of commitment during the different phases of a change project, the change process quality, the importance and realization level of the different goals set for the change project, and the final success of the change initiative. The results indicate that a strong, positive relationship exists between the change process quality and the level of employees’ commitment to change.

4 citations


References
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Abstract: Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those wanting to start thematic analysis, or conduct it in a more deliberate and rigorous way, and consider potential pitfalls in conducting thematic analysis. Finally, we outline the disadvantages and advantages of thematic analysis. We conclude by advocating thematic analysis as a useful and flexible method for qualitative research in and beyond psychology.

77,018 citations


"The Influences of Employees' Emotio..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Data were identified, analyzed and reported using the six phases of thematic analysis [5]: (1) becoming familiar with the data (2) generating initial codes (3) searching for themes (4) reviewing themes (5) defining and naming themes and (6) producing the report....

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01 Jan 1989
TL;DR: Regression analyses suggest that perceived ease of use may actually be a causal antecdent to perceived usefulness, as opposed to a parallel, direct determinant of system usage.

36,160 citations


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Abstract: Valid measurement scales for predicting user acceptance of computers are in short supply. Most subjective measures used in practice are unvalidated, and their relationship to system usage is unknown. The present research develops and validates new scales for two specific variables, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, which are hypothesized to be fundamental determinants of user acceptance. Definitions of these two variables were used to develop scale items that were pretested for content validity and then tested for reliability and construct validity in two studies involving a total of 152 users and four application programs. The measures were refined and streamlined, resulting in two six-item scales with reliabilities of .98 for usefulness and .94 for ease of use. The scales exhibited hgih convergent, discriminant, and factorial validity. Perceived usefulness was significnatly correlated with both self-reported current usage r = .63, Study 1) and self-predicted future usage r = .85, Study 2). Perceived ease of use was also significantly correlated with current usage r = .45, Study 1) and future usage r = .59, Study 2). In both studies, usefulness had a signficnatly greater correaltion with usage behavior than did ease of use. Regression analyses suggest that perceived ease of use may actually be a causal antecdent to perceived usefulness, as opposed to a parallel, direct determinant of system usage. Implications are drawn for future research on user acceptance.

35,886 citations


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Abstract: Here is a monumental work that continues in the tradition pioneered by co-author Richard Lazarus in his classic book Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. Dr. Lazarus and his collaborator, Dr. Susan Folkman, present here a detailed theory of psychological stress, building on the concepts of cognitive appraisal and coping which have become major themes of theory and investigation. As an integrative theoretical analysis, this volume pulls together two decades of research and thought on issues in behavioral medicine, emotion, stress management, treatment, and life span development. A selective review of the most pertinent literature is included in each chapter. The total reference listing for the book extends to 60 pages. This work is necessarily multidisciplinary, reflecting the many dimensions of stress-related problems and their situation within a complex social context. While the emphasis is on psychological aspects of stress, the book is oriented towards professionals in various disciplines, as well as advanced students and educated laypersons. The intended audience ranges from psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, nurses, and social workers to sociologists, anthropologists, medical researchers, and physiologists.

35,437 citations


"The Influences of Employees' Emotio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Since emotions are reactions to the meaning of a situation [21] and that meaning is due to an individual’s evaluation of a situation [20], the receptivity phase covers both employees’ emotional...

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  • ...negative emotions [20][21] concerning their technology adoption....

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  • ...The second model (Lazarus’s stress theory) demonstrates how individuals’ primary appraisals (subjective judgments about the significance of a specific event) and secondary appraisals (personal evaluations of coping resources, constraints and options) affect their receptivity to and mobilization for change [16][18][21]....

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  • ...Most literature in this domain either mainly concentrates theoretically and quantitatively on the variety of emotions and perceptions that individuals/employees usually have during organizational change initiatives [18][19][20][21] while few point to the importance of earlier mentioned change components [16]....

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  • ...Primary appraisal is also concerned with the individuals’ well-being [18][19][21]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Information technology (IT) acceptance research has yielded many competing models, each with different sets of acceptance determinants. In this paper, we (1) review user acceptance literature and discuss eight prominent models, (2) empirically compare the eight models and their extensions, (3) formulate a unified model that integrates elements across the eight models, and (4) empirically validate the unified model. The eight models reviewed are the theory of reasoned action, the technology acceptance model, the motivational model, the theory of planned behavior, a model combining the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior, the model of PC utilization, the innovation diffusion theory, and the social cognitive theory. Using data from four organizations over a six-month period with three points of measurement, the eight models explained between 17 percent and 53 percent of the variance in user intentions to use information technology. Next, a unified model, called the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), was formulated, with four core determinants of intention and usage, and up to four moderators of key relationships. UTAUT was then tested using the original data and found to outperform the eight individual models (adjusted R2 of 69 percent). UTAUT was then confirmed with data from two new organizations with similar results (adjusted R2 of 70 percent). UTAUT thus provides a useful tool for managers needing to assess the likelihood of success for new technology introductions and helps them understand the drivers of acceptance in order to proactively design interventions (including training, marketing, etc.) targeted at populations of users that may be less inclined to adopt and use new systems. The paper also makes several recommendations for future research including developing a deeper understanding of the dynamic influences studied here, refining measurement of the core constructs used in UTAUT, and understanding the organizational outcomes associated with new technology use.

24,087 citations


Frequently Asked Questions (2)
Q1. What are the contributions mentioned in the paper "The influences of employees’ emotions and cognition on it adoption: some perspectives from iran" ?

This paper presents an extended model of individuals ’ reactions to IT implementation initiatives. The aim is to explore the relationship between an employee ’ s cognitive appraisal of an IT initiative, their emotional response and the processes they undergo when faced with difficulties in accepting IT adoption and change in an organizational setting. The paper presents the results of an interpretive case study based in Iran. According to the findings of the study, employees ’ evaluations of a new IT initiative can become an obstacle to change. The paper ’ s first contribution is to provide a deeper understanding of the effects of an IT implementation on individuals ’ emotions and cognition. 

The findings suggest implications for practice as well as directions for future research. It can be argued that there is no simple, single and individual reason behind reduction in employees ’ motivation and their ‘ not positive ’ evaluations of IT implementation. Lack of understanding employees ’ perceptions and emotions about the computerized system, however, suggests instead that technology adoption was not successful at the time of the IT implementation.