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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCVM.2021.650214

The Interplay Between Adipose Tissue and Vasculature: Role of Oxidative Stress in Obesity

04 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine (Front Cardiovasc Med)-Vol. 8, pp 650214-650214
Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) rank the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Obesity and its related metabolic syndrome are well-established risk factors for CVDs. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiological role of adipose tissues is of great importance in maintaining cardiovascular health. Oxidative stress, characterized by excessive formation of reactive oxygen species, is a common cellular stress shared by obesity and CVDs. While plenty of literatures have illustrated the vascular oxidative stress, very few have discussed the impact of oxidative stress in adipose tissues. Adipose tissues can communicate with vascular systems, in an endocrine and paracrine manner, through secreting several adipocytokines, which is largely dysregulated in obesity. The aim of this review is to summarize current understanding of the relationship between oxidative stress in obesity and vascular endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we briefly describe the possible causes of oxidative stress in obesity, and the impact of obesity-induced oxidative stress on adipose tissue function. We also summarize the crosstalk between adipose tissue and vasculature mediated by adipocytokines in vascular oxidative stress. In addition, we highlight the potential target mediating adipose tissue oxidative stress.

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Topics: Adipose tissue (61%), Oxidative stress (53%), Adipokine (51%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHAR.2021.693100
Abstract: A high fructose diet (HFD) and advanced age are key factors for the gradual loss of physiological integrity of adipose tissue. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has beneficial effects on cytoprotection and redox balance. But its interactive effects on age-related damage of mesenteric vessels and connective and adipose tissues (MA) during HFD which could be the base of the development of effective physiological-based therapeutic strategy are unknown. The aim of study was to investigate age- and HFD-induced mesenteric cellular changes and activities of enzymes in H2S synthesis and to test the effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) which is considered an H2S donor on them. Adult and aged male rats on a standard diet (SD) or 4-week HFD were exposed to acute water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS) for evaluation of mesenteric subcellular and cellular adaptive responses by electron microscopy. The effects of exogenous NaHS (5.6 mg/kg/day for 9 days) versus vehicle on mesentery changes were investigated. Serum glucose level, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and activities of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), thiosulfate-dithiol sulfurtransferase (TST), and sulfite oxidase (SO) were examined by spectrophotometry. In both adult and aged SD groups, treatment with NaHS protected mesenteric cells after WIRS. In both groups, the treatment with NaHS also protected MA mitochondria, microvascular endothelial and sub-endothelial structures, and fibroblasts versus the vehicle-treated group that had signs of damage. HFD increased MA injury and mitochondrial changes in both aged and adult rats. HFD-associated malfunction is characterized by low activities of CSE, CBS, TST, SO, and increased TBARS. Finally, we demonstrated that pretreatment with NaHS inhibited MA and mitochondria alterations in aged rats exposed to HFD and WIRS, lowered TBARS, and enhanced H2S enzyme activities in contrast to the vehicle-treated group. Mitochondrial integrity alterations, endothelial damage, and redox imbalance are key factors for rat mesenteric adipose tissue damage during advanced age. These alterations and MA hypertrophic changes retain the central for HFD-induced damage. Moreover, H2S signaling contributes to MA and mitochondria redox balance that is crucial for advanced age and HFD injury. The future study of H2S donors' effects on mesenteric cells is fundamental to define novel therapeutic strategies against metabolic changes.

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Topics: Sodium hydrosulfide (59%), Adipose tissue (55%), TBARS (54%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ANTIOX10111758
04 Nov 2021-Antioxidants
Abstract: Excess epicardial adiposity, within a state of obesity and metabolic syndrome, is emerging as an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Accordingly, increased epicardial fat thickness (EFT) implicates the exacerbation of pathological mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation within the heart, which may accelerate the development of CVDs. This explains increased interest in targeting EFT reduction to attenuate the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and inflammation within the setting of metabolic syndrome. Here, we critically discuss clinical and preclinical evidence on the impact of physical exercise on EFT in correlation with reduced CVD risk within a setting of metabolic disease. This review also brings a unique perspective on the implications of oxidative stress and inflammation as major pathological consequences that link increased EFT to accelerated CVD risk in conditions of metabolic disease.

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Topics: Metabolic syndrome (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22147516
Ersilia Nigro1, Marta Mallardo1, Rita Polito1, Filippo Scialò  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Adiponectin and leptin are two abundant adipokines with different properties but both described such as potent factors regulating angiogenesis. AdipoRon is a small-molecule that, binding to AdipoRs receptors, acts as an adiponectin agonist. Here, we investigated the effects of AdipoRon and leptin on viability, migration and tube formation on a human in vitro model, the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) focusing on the expression of the main endothelial angiogenic factors: hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9). Treatments with VEGF-A were used as positive control. Our data revealed that, at 24 h treatment, proliferation of HUVEC endothelial cells was not influenced by AdipoRon or leptin administration; after 48 h longer exposure time, the viability was negatively influenced by AdipoRon while leptin treatment and the combination of AdipoRon+leptin produced no effects. In addition, AdipoRon induced a significant increase in complete tubular structures together with induction of cell migration while, on the contrary, leptin did not induce tube formation and inhibited cell migration; interestingly, the co-treatment with both AdipoRon and leptin determined a significant decrease of the tubular structures and cell migration indicating that leptin antagonizes AdipoRon effects. Finally, we found that the effects induced by AdipoRon administration are accompanied by an increase in the expression of CXCL1, VEGF-A, MMP-2 and MMP-9. In conclusion, our data sustain the active role of adiponectin and leptin in linking adipose tissue with the vascular endothelium encouraging the further deepening of the role of adipokines in new vessel’s formation, to candidate them as therapeutic targets.

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Topics: Adipokine (63%), Leptin (57%), Vascular endothelial growth factor A (57%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JPM11090873
Abstract: The burden of abdominal adiposity has increased globally, which is recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity-related disorders among youth, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. High blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular diseases increase the rates of premature mortality and morbidity substantially. Aims: to investigate the relation between abdominal adiposity and elevated BP among adolescent males in Jordan. Methods: Nationally representative sample of male adolescents was selected using multi-cluster sampling technique. Study sample included 1035 adolescent males aged 12 to 17 years. Multiple indicators were used to assess adiposity including waist circumference (WC) and total body fat (TF), truncal fat (TrF), and visceral fat (VF). Systolic blood pressure was measured to assess hypertension. Results: After adjusting for age, smoking status, and physical activity, the odds of having stage two hypertension increased 6, 7, and 8 times for adolescents who were on 90th percentile or above for Trf, VF, and WC, respectively. Conclusion: Elevated BP was significantly associated with total and abdominal adiposity among adolescent males in Jordan. Use of multiple clinical assessment tools is essential to assess abdominal obesity among adolescents.

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Topics: Abdominal obesity (61%), Blood pressure (53%), Type 2 diabetes (51%) ... show more

References
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158 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192644
20 Oct 2009-Circulation
Abstract: A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.

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Topics: Metabolic syndrome (57%), Type 2 diabetes (53%), Metabolically healthy obesity (51%) ... show more

10,080 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/PHYSREV.00044.2005
Karen Bedard1, Karl-Heinz KrauseInstitutions (1)
Abstract: For a long time, superoxide generation by an NADPH oxidase was considered as an oddity only found in professional phagocytes. Over the last years, six homologs of the cytochrome subunit of the phag...

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Topics: NADPH Oxidase 1 (67%), NOX4 (64%), NOX1 (63%) ... show more

5,183 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/27376
22 Oct 1998-Nature
Abstract: The assimilation, storage and use of energy from nutrients constitute a homeostatic system that is essential for life In vertebrates, the ability to store sufficient quantities of energy-dense triglyceride in adipose tissue allows survival during the frequent periods of food deprivation encountered during evolution However, the presence of excess adipose tissue can be maladaptive A complex physiological system has evolved to regulate fuel stores and energy balance at an optimum level Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, and its receptor are integral components of this system Leptin also signals nutritional status to several other physiological systems and modulates their function Here we review the role of leptin in the control of body weight and its relevance to the pathogenesis of obesity

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Topics: Leptin Deficiency (65%), Leptin receptor (65%), Adipose tissue (64%) ... show more

5,151 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1172/JCI21625
Abstract: Obesity is a principal causative factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. Here we report that increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat is an important pathogenic mechanism of obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Fat accumulation correlated with systemic oxidative stress in humans and mice. Production of ROS increased selectively in adipose tissue of obese mice, accompanied by augmented expression of NADPH oxidase and decreased expression of antioxidative enzymes. In cultured adipocytes, elevated levels of fatty acids increased oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase activation, and oxidative stress caused dysregulated production of adipocytokines (fat-derived hormones), including adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Finally, in obese mice, treatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitor reduced ROS production in adipose tissue, attenuated the dysregulation of adipocytokines, and improved diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Collectively, our results suggest that increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat is an early instigator of metabolic syndrome and that the redox state in adipose tissue is a potentially useful therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic syndrome.

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Topics: Adipose tissue (60%), Oxidative stress (58%), NADPH oxidase (56%) ... show more

4,325 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1614362
Abstract: BACKGROUND Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHOD ...

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Topics: Disease burden (56%), Overweight (55%)

2,996 Citations


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