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Dissertation

The IRO Children’s Village Bad Aibling

TL;DR: The first comprehensive history of the IRO Children's Village Bad Aibling is presented in this paper, which represents the first comprehensive microhistorical study based on a variety of source material and previous research.
Abstract: Based on a variety of source material and previous research, this microhistorical study represents the first comprehensive history of the IRO Children’s Village Bad Aibling. Established in late 1948, it was the central facility within the US Zone of Germany where unaccompanied children were cared for by the International Refugee Organization (IRO). Displaced during or after World War II, their fates were as varied as those of adults who had survived the atrocities of the Nazi regime. In total, over 2,000 children (representing more than 20 nationalities) passed through the Children’s Village. The early days were marked by a prolonged struggle to get the installation into running order, secure necessary supplies and hire qualified staff. Tensions which arose as a result of these problems culminated in violent episodes of unrest among the children. The administrative setup in Bad Aibling was reorganized, and the situation gradually improved. With the help of various voluntary agencies such as the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), an ambitious program was developed from 1949 onwards. It was inspired by contemporary trends in child welfare and aimed at developing an inclusive, international community consisting of family-like living groups. Through schooling and vocational training, recreational activities, psychological treatment and individual case work, the inhabitants were prepared for life after the Children’s Village. A decision regarding the future of each child had to be reached. In the majority of cases, the options were either repatriation or resettlement abroad. While the political friction of the Cold War had an undeniable effect on the IRO’s activities in Bad Aibling, it seems impossible to derive a universal set of beliefs guiding the work of relief workers from this fact. Despite occasional contact with the German population as well as international press coverage, the Children’s Village remained more or less isolated from the outside world. The last months of the Children’s Village saw new challenges as the IRO slowly began to wind down its operations in Europe. A change in US occupation policy saw the introduction of new courts which would decide the cases of the remaining children. In 1951, the Children’s Village shut its doors, and its inhabitants were moved to Feldafing. By early 1952, the cases of the remaining children had been closed. It is believed that the history of the Children’s Village, as part of a broader narrative of humanitarian efforts and child welfare in the postwar period, is relevant to the sphere of international relief work today.
Citations
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Journal Article
TL;DR: A light-hearted comment on beliefs in extraterrestrial life is made in this article, where the authors ask how to judge whose beliefs are the right ones, and how do we know if our own beliefs are true or not.
Abstract: Who can judge whose beliefs are the right ones? How do we know if our own beliefs are true or not? A light-hearted comment on beliefs in extraterrestrial life.

14 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: In this article, the authors skizziert aus zeithistorischer perspektive the situation fur die Fursorge in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Schatten des Nationalsozialismus.
Abstract: Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts und uber 50 Jahre nach Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs begann auf internationaler Ebene eine Auseinandersetzung mit der Sozialen Arbeit als Menschenrechtsprofession, allerdings ohne eine systematische Untersuchung der zu verantwortenden Verstose und Verletzungen. Der Artikel skizziert aus zeithistorischer Perspektive diese Situation fur die Fursorge in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Schatten des Nationalsozialismus. Der lange Weg der Reformen gerade auch in den traditionell repressiven Bereichen der stationaren Kinder und Jugendhilfe war in den 1970er Jahren noch lange nicht abgeschlossen. Aufgezeigt wird der Zusammenhang zwischen fehlender historischer Aufarbeitung der Menschenrechtsverletzungen der Sozialen Arbeit in der NS-Zeit bis in die 1970er Jahre und der Missachtung der Betroffenen als Subjekte des Rechts, insbesondere der Menschenrechte.
DOI
TL;DR: In this article , a group of former members of the Royal Yugoslav Army, who were taken to Germany as prisoners of war (POWs) after 1945, were classified as DPs after 1945 and they lived in camps administered by UNRRA and the International Refugee Organization (IRO).
Abstract: Abstract There are still many historical blind spots in research on Europe's displaced persons (DPs) after the Second World War. In particular, there are relatively few studies that link microhistorical perspectives on repatriation and resettlement with global contexts. This essay addresses this gap, in empirical as well as methodological terms, by focusing on a group of DPs that hitherto has received little attention from scholars: former members of the Royal Yugoslav Army, whom the Nazis had taken to Germany as prisoners of war (POWs). Classified as DPs after 1945, they lived in camps administered by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) and the International Refugee Organization (IRO). Under the circumstances, they continued to maintain military-like routines and fiercely refused repatriation. This was partly an expression of loyalty to the exiled Yugoslav king, Peter II. But it also mirrored the fears of DPs about—and resistance to the idea of—being returned to their homeland in the context of the early Cold War. Using the example of a DP camp in Bad Aibling (Upper Bavaria), this article connects Yugoslav DPs, Allied DP politics, and the interests of Tito's government, as well as the interventions of international relief agencies. It shows how some DPs adroitly subverted the international logic of DP self-governance as promoted by UNRRA. A global microhistory approach thus reveals how local actors and sites are shaped by, but also foundationally constitutive of, global regimes of migrational self-governance.
References
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Book
19 Nov 1987
TL;DR: In this paper, a comprehensive set of recommendations for international treatment of children separated from their families, addressing all the major policy issues which have faced governments, international organizations and volunteers in successive crises are presented.
Abstract: From the Spanish Civil war to the boat people of Vietnam, children have been tragically separated from their families in emergencies. This study summarizes the kinds of separations, their causes, and the responses of national, international and voluntary organizations. It draws on historical, psychological and legal perspectives to recount nine 20th-century crises. It looks at the powerful psychological effects of family separations, and describes present legal protections for the children in comparative and international law. The authors present a comprehensive set of recommendations for international treatment of children separated from their families, addressing all the major policy issues which have faced governments, international organizations and volunteers in successive crises.

134 citations

Book
01 Jan 2001

125 citations

Book
09 May 2011
TL;DR: The Lost Children as discussed by the authors is a story of families destroyed by war and how the reconstruction of families quickly became synonymous with the survival of European civilization itself, even as Allied officials and humanitarian organizations proclaimed a new era of individualist and internationalist values, and defined the "best interests" of children in nationalist terms.
Abstract: During the Second World War, an unprecedented number of families were torn apart. As the Nazi empire crumbled, millions roamed the continent in search of their loved ones. The Lost Children tells the story of these families, and of the struggle to determine their fate. We see how the reconstruction of families quickly became synonymous with the survival of European civilization itself. Even as Allied officials and humanitarian organizations proclaimed a new era of individualist and internationalist values, Tara Zahra demonstrates that they defined the "best interests" of children in nationalist terms. Sovereign nations and families were seen as the key to the psychological rehabilitation of traumatized individuals and the peace and stability of Europe. Based on original research in German, French, Czech, Polish, and American archives, The Lost Children is a heartbreaking and mesmerizing story. It brings together the histories of eastern and western Europe, and traces the efforts of everyone--from Jewish Holocaust survivors to German refugees, from Communist officials to American social workers--to rebuild the lives of displaced children. It reveals that many seemingly timeless ideals of the family were actually conceived in the concentration camps, orphanages, and refugee camps of the Second World War, and shows how the process of reconstruction shaped Cold War ideologies and ideas about childhood and national identity. This riveting tale of families destroyed by war reverberates in the lost children of today's wars and in the compelling issues of international adoption, human rights and humanitarianism, and refugee policies.

121 citations

Book
18 Aug 2009
TL;DR: A comprehensive and comprehensive history of international organizations from their very beginning at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 up to the present day, and providing the reader with nearly two centuries of world history seen from the perspective of international organisations is presented in this paper.
Abstract: This is a definitive and comprehensive history of international organizations from their very beginning at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 up to the present day, and provides the reader with nearly two centuries of world history seen from the perspective of international organizations. It covers the three main fields of international relations: security, economics and the humanitarian domain which often overlap in international organizations. As well as global and intercontinental organizations, the book also covers regional international organizations and international non-governmental organizations in all continents. The book progresses chronologically but also provides a thematic and geographical coherence so that related developments can be discussed together. A series of detailed tables, figures, charts and information boxes explain the chronologies, structures and relationships of international organizations. There are biographies, histories and analysis of hundreds of international organizations. This is an essential reference work with direct relevance to scholars in international relations, international political economy, international economics and business and security studies.

87 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There was no background, tradition, system, common language or currency for UNRRA; yet it brought together ‘men and women of different nationalities, backgrounds and skills’, all united in the ambition to build ‘a true world community with new social systems and international relations’.
Abstract: Susan Pettiss, an American relief worker, remembered that UNRRA—the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration—‘caused quite a stir when it was established’. Its creation was ‘a magnificent unprecedented feat’, she thought: ‘There was no background, tradition, system, common language or currency for UNRRA’; yet it brought together ‘men and women of different nationalities, backgrounds and skills’, all united in the ambition to build ‘a true world community with new social systems and international relations’. 2 Other relief workers thought much the same. Francesca Wilson, a British relief worker with decades of experience, described how en route to begin her duties in continental Europe it suddenly dawned on her ‘what a great experiment UNRRA was—the first international body to do something concrete and constructive, an attempt at an international civil service’.

56 citations