TL;DR: The essay centers of the efforts by the League of Nations to rescue women and children survivors of the 1915 Armenian Genocide, which was at once a constitutive act in drawing the boundaries of the international community, a key moment in the definition of humanitarianism, and a site of resistance to the colonial presence in the post-Ottoman Eastern Mediterranean.
Abstract: The essay centers of the efforts by the League of Nations to rescue women and children survivors of the 1915 Armenian Genocide. This rescue -- a seemingly unambiguous good -- was at once a constitutive act in drawing the boundaries of the international community, a key moment in the definition of humanitarianism, and a site of resistance to the colonial presence in the post-Ottoman Eastern Mediterranean. Drawing from a wide range of source materials in a number of languages, including Turkish, Armenian, and Arabic, the essay brings the intellectual and social context of humanitarianism in initiating societies together with the lived experience of humanitarianism in the places where the act took form. In so doing, it draws our attention to the proper place of the Eastern mediterranean, and its women and children, in the global history of humanitarianism. The prevailing narrative of the history of human rights places much of its emphasis on the post-World War II era, the international reaction to the Holocaust, and the founding of the United Nations. yet contemporary human rights thinking also took place within practices of humanitarianism in the interwar period, and is necessarily inseparable from the histories of refugees, colonialism, and the non-West.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors address the question of how states, meaning organized political communities, were historically able to secure their sovereignty through gaining the recognition of other states by reinterpreting aspects of the existing Ottoman legacy of statehood and international norms.
Abstract: This thesis addresses the question of how states, meaning organised political communities, were historically able to secure their sovereignty through gaining the recognition of other states. As sovereignty refers to the presence of a state’s authority, its existence is premised on states and other internal and external actors recognising claims to sovereignty. Therefore, states, such as the Ottoman Empire, which historically had a different understanding of legitimacy, faced challenges to their sovereignty following the emergence of new global understandings of sovereignty in the late nineteenth century. The Ottoman Empire was distinct in that it was the only Islamic state that was not subject to and was able to avoid completely falling under the influence of then-dominant European states. However, the Ottoman Empire still experienced European intervention and there was a desire to end forms of European extraterritorial jurisdiction. Ottoman elites, who were affiliated with the reformist Young Turks, sought to secure recognition of their state’s sovereignty by reconstituting it along novel international standards of legitimate statehood. These standards were based on the concepts of “civilised”, “militarist”, “popular” and “national” statehood, and were reinterpreted by the Young Turks in the course of their efforts to secure the recognition of European powers. These efforts included diplomacy with European powers, institutional reform and conceptual innovation. However, it also involved engaging in practices associated with sovereignty such as the control of territory. In all of these areas, the Young Turks reinterpreted aspects of the existing Ottoman legacy of statehood and international norms, to secure their claim to sovereignty. Therefore, the Ottoman state elites sought to convey an impression of governing a state that could be recognised as sovereign by other European powers. Ultimately, the remnants of the Young Turks, secured international recognition of their state, reconstituted as the nation-state of Turkey in 1923.
Cites background from "The League of Nations' rescue of Ar..."
...These institutions were not only geared towards constructing a world organised on the basis of sovereign nation-states, but also involved a strong dedication to humanitarian principles (Watenpaugh, 2010; 2015a; 2015b)....
TL;DR: Zablotsky et al. as discussed by the authors investigated how colonial imaginaries of the Armenian nation were produced by trans-imperial entanglements between the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean, and the North Atlantic since the early modern period in order to develop a postcolonial critique of neoliberal development in post-Soviet Armenia.
Abstract: Author(s): Zablotsky, Veronika | Advisor(s): Dent, Gina | Abstract: This dissertation reconsiders the history of Armenian displacement from the standpoint of feminist and postcolonial theory. It investigates how colonial imaginaries of the Armenian nation were produced by trans-imperial entanglements between the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean, and the North Atlantic since the early modern period in order to develop a postcolonial critique of neoliberal development in post-Soviet Armenia. Building on Edward Said’s framework of Orientalism, it argues that constructions of Armenians as representatives of the “West” in the “East” not only disarticulated Armenian claims to indigeneity in West Asia but also facilitated the global expansion of colonial logics of race and empire. The four chapters of this thesis deploy a mixed methodology that combines empirical and archival research with analyses of textual and visual materials to rethink the concept of emancipation in West Asia. They draw on a range of sources from novels and memoirs, including "The Life and Adventures of Joseph Emin" (1792), to diplomatic reports, newspaper articles, and naturalization cases that determined whether Armenians were to be categorized as “free white persons” in the United States. Furthermore, they discuss the silent film "Auction of Souls" (1919) alongside images and photographs of Armenian orphans by Near East Relief, the writings of Fridtjof Nansen and Karen Jeppe, among others, as well as images and illustrations in an Armenian-language Soviet women’s journal. Based on open-ended interviews and participant observation among diasporic reformers in post-Soviet Armenia’s non-governmental development sector, this thesis demonstrates that neoliberal development in post-Soviet Armenia actualizes colonial logics that preceded and exceded Soviet statecraft. By contrasting the early Soviet project of women’s emancipation with the inter-war mandate system in the Middle East, and colonial subjection by the English joint-stock corporation in South Asia, it develops an alternative account of globalization that offers a postcolonial approach to postsocialism and diaspora in West Asia. Drawing on critical race and political theory, it concludes that moving toward collective futures beyond the colonial gaze will require emancipation from the logic of development, or “developmentality,” as a rationality of government.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a discursive framework for policing in the context of police, labour, and colonial violence in the British colonies of North Africa and South-West Africa.
Abstract: Introduction: police, labour and colonial violence Part I. Ideas and Practices: 1. Colonial policing: a discursive framework 2. 'What did you do in the colonial police force, daddy?' Policing inter-war dissent 3. 'Paying the butcher's bill': policing British colonial protest after 1918 Part II. Colonial Case Studies: French, British and Belgian: 4. Gendarmes: work and policing in French North Africa after 1918 5. Policing Tunisia: mineworkers, fellahs and nationalist protest 6. Rubber, coolies and communists: policing disorder in French Vietnam 7. Stuck together? Rubber production, labour regulation and policing in Malaya 8. Caning the workers? Policing and violence in Jamaica's sugar industry 9. Oil and order: repressive violence in Trinidad's oilfields 10. Profits, privatization and police: the birth of Sierra Leone's diamond industry 11. Policing and politics in Nigeria: the political economy of indirect rule, 1929-39 12. Depression and revolt: policing the Belgian Congo Conclusion Notes to the text.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the transnational turn in the wake of the First World War 1, and the transition from humanitarian rights to human rights in the 21st century.
Abstract: Introduction: human disasters: humanitarian rights and the transnational turn in the wake of the First World War 1. 'Rights, not charity': Rene Cassin and war victims 2. Justice and peace: Albert Thomas, the ILO and the dream of a transnational politics of social rights 3. The tragedy of being stateless: Fridtjof Nansen and the rights of refugees 4. The hungry and the sick: Herbert Hoover, the Russian famine, and the professionalization of humanitarian aid 5. Humanitarianism old and new: Eglantyne Jebb and children's rights Conclusion: human dignity: from humanitarian rights to human rights Bibliographical essay Bibliography.