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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNEUR.2021.624861

The lighting environment, its metrology and non-visual responses

04 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Neurology (Frontiers Research Foundation)-Vol. 12, pp 624861-624861
Abstract: International standard CIE S 026:2018 provides lighting professionals and field researchers in chronobiology with a method to characterize light exposures with respect to non-visual photoreception and responses. This standard defines five spectral sensitivity functions that describe optical radiation for its ability to stimulate each of the five α-opic retinal photoreceptor classes that contribute to the non-visual effects of light in humans via intrinsically-photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). The CIE also recently published an open-access α-opic toolbox that calculates all the quantities and ratios of the α-opic metrology in the photometric, radiometric and photon systems, based on either a measured (user-defined) spectrum or selected illuminants (A, D65, E, FL11, LED-B3) built into the toolbox. For a wide variety of ecologically-valid conditions, the melanopsin-based photoreception of ipRGCs has been shown to account for the spectral sensitivity of non-visual responses, from shifting the timing of nocturnal sleep and melatonin secretion to regulating steady-state pupil diameter. Recent findings continue to confirm that the photopigment melanopsin also plays a role in visual responses, and that melanopsin-based photoreception may have a significant influence on brightness perception and aspects of spatial vision. Although knowledge concerning the extent to which rods and cones interact with ipRGCs in driving non-visual effects is still growing, a CIE position statement recently used melanopic equivalent daylight (D65) illuminance in preliminary guidance on applying "proper light at the proper time" to manipulate non-visual responses. Further guidance on this approach is awaited from the participants of the 2nd International Workshop on Circadian and Neurophysiological Photometry (in Manchester, August 2019). The new α-opic metrology of CIE S 026 enables traceable measurements and a formal, quantitative specification of personal light exposures, photic interventions and lighting designs. Here, we apply this metrology to everyday light sources including a natural daylight time series, a range of LED lighting products and, using the toobox, to a smartphone display screen. This collection of examples suggests ways in which variations in the melanopic content of light over the day can be adopted in strategies that use light to support human health and well-being.

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Topics: Retinal ganglion (55%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13095131
04 May 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: DIN SPEC 5031-100 and CIE S 026:2018 are regulatory frameworks that are intended to establish health-preserving indoor lighting in Europe. Therefore, they are crucial for the visual environment and its sustainability. The standards are largely congruent. Inconsistencies should now be harmonized with the newly published draft standard DIN/TS 5031-100, for which the objection period ended on 3 June 2020; thus, it can be expected that the standard will soon be put into operation. This publication provides the reader with a detailed technical as well as medical overview of the scope and background information on how the standard came about. Applicable laws, ordinances and standards were compiled across countries, and related studies were reviewed. It is demonstrated that the focus of this new standard, as with previous versions, is on the melanopic sensitivity of ganglion cells. The authors base this on a literature search for projects about ecological lighting design over the past 20 years. However, in practice, the publication of the standard does not yet completely counteract the health effects of inappropriate indoor lighting.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-92863-Z
01 Jul 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Human cognitive functioning shows circadian variations throughout the day. However, individuals largely differ in their timing during the day of when they are more capable of performing specific tasks and when they prefer to sleep. These interindividual differences in preferred temporal organization of sleep and daytime activities define the chronotype. Since a late chronotype is associated with adverse mental and physical consequences, it is of vital importance to study how lighting environments affect chronotype. Here, we use a mathematical model of the human circadian pacemaker to understand how light in the built environment changes the chronotype distribution in the population. In line with experimental findings, we show that when individuals spend their days in relatively dim light conditions, this not only results in a later phase of their biological clock but also increases interindividual differences in circadian phase angle of entrainment and preferred sleep timing. Increasing daytime illuminance results in a more narrow distribution of sleep timing and circadian phase, and this effect is more pronounced for longer photoperiods. The model results demonstrate that modern lifestyle changes the chronotype distribution towards more eveningness and more extreme differences in eveningness. Such model-based predictions can be used to design guidelines for workplace lighting that help limiting circadian phase differences, and craft new lighting strategies that support human performance, health and wellbeing.

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Topics: Chronotype (70%), Circadian rhythm (54%), Population (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/APP11135996
28 Jun 2021-Applied Sciences
Abstract: The evaluation of both visual and nonvisual effects from the spectral power distribution (SPD) of outdoor light is critical in lighting design. The dome-light SPD characteristically changes continuously depending on the seasonality, orientation, altitude of the sun or hour of the day. Traditional photopic parameters, such as the illuminance, luminance or correlated colour temperature (CCT), have been widely studied, but presently, there is no melanopic measurement or evaluation method. This article discusses the processes involved in establishing a simple method to determine the SPD of daylight and solar radiation over the skydome in a location to accurately account for the effects of both photopic and circadian levels around a location. Once per month for one year, natural daylight was spectrally measured in the city of Zaragoza (Spain); radiometric and photometric characteristics were analysed by season; and circadian effects were calculated in terms of standard parameters described by the Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE), factors recommended by normative and scientific backgrounds. Finally, we suggest that the best parameter is the melanopic versus photopic irradiance ratio, which achieves reliable results at simplifying and correlating calculations.

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Topics: Daylight (56%), Photopic vision (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNEUR.2021.654158
Manuel Spitschan1, Manuel Spitschan2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Light exposure profoundly affects human physiology and behavior through circadian and neuroendocrine photoreception primarily through the melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Recent research has explored the possibility of using temporally patterned stimuli to manipulate circadian and neuroendocrine responses to light. This mini-review, geared to chronobiologists, sleep researchers, and scientists in adjacent disciplines, has two objectives: (1) introduce basic concepts in time-varying stimuli and (2) provide a checklist-based set of recommendations for documenting time-varying light exposures based on current best practices and standards.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/APP11156936
28 Jul 2021-Applied Sciences
Abstract: As one factor among others, circadian effectiveness depends on the spatial light distribution of the prevalent lighting conditions. In a typical office context focusing on computer work, the light that is experienced by the office workers is usually composed of a direct component emitted by the room luminaires and the computer monitors as well as by an indirect component reflected from the walls, surfaces, and ceiling. Due to this multi-directional light pattern, spatially resolved light measurements are required for an adequate prediction of non-visual light-induced effects. In this work, we therefore propose a novel methodological framework for spatially resolved light measurements that allows for an estimate of the circadian effectiveness of a lighting situation for variable field of view (FOV) definitions. Results of exemplary in-field office light measurements are reported and compared to those obtained from standard spectral radiometry to validate the accuracy of the proposed approach. The corresponding relative error is found to be of the order of 3–6%, which denotes an acceptable range for most practical applications. In addition, the impact of different FOVs as well as non-zero measurement angles will be investigated.

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1 Citations


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88 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1067262
08 Feb 2002-Science
Abstract: Light synchronizes mammalian circadian rhythms with environmental time by modulating retinal input to the circadian pacemaker-the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Such photic entrainment requires neither rods nor cones, the only known retinal photoreceptors. Here, we show that retinal ganglion cells innervating the SCN are intrinsically photosensitive. Unlike other ganglion cells, they depolarized in response to light even when all synaptic input from rods and cones was blocked. The sensitivity, spectral tuning, and slow kinetics of this light response matched those of the photic entrainment mechanism, suggesting that these ganglion cells may be the primary photoreceptors for this system.

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2,748 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/SJ.JEA.7500165
Abstract: Because human activities impact the timing, location, and degree of pollutant exposure, they play a key role in explaining exposure variation. This fact has motivated the collection of activity pattern data for their specific use in exposure assessments. The largest of these recent efforts is the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), a 2-year probability-based telephone survey ( n=9386) of exposure-related human activities in the United States (U.S.) sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary purpose of NHAPS was to provide comprehensive and current exposure information over broad geographical and temporal scales, particularly for use in probabilistic population exposure models. NHAPS was conducted on a virtually daily basis from late September 1992 through September 1994 by the University of Maryland's Survey Research Center using a computer-assisted telephone interview instrument (CATI) to collect 24-h retrospective diaries and answers to a number of personal and exposure-related questions from each respondent. The resulting diary records contain beginning and ending times for each distinct combination of location and activity occurring on the diary day (i.e., each microenvironment). Between 340 and 1713 respondents of all ages were interviewed in each of the 10 EPA regions across the 48 contiguous states. Interviews were completed in 63% of the households contacted. NHAPS respondents reported spending an average of 87% of their time in enclosed buildings and about 6% of their time in enclosed vehicles. These proportions are fairly constant across the various regions of the U.S. and Canada and for the California population between the late 1980s, when the California Air Resources Board (CARB) sponsored a state-wide activity pattern study, and the mid-1990s, when NHAPS was conducted. However, the number of people exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in California seems to have decreased over the same time period, where exposure is determined by the reported time spent with a smoker. In both California and the entire nation, the most time spent exposed to ETS was reported to take place in residential locations.

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Topics: Environmental exposure (62%), Population (54%), Environmental pollution (54%) ... show more

2,711 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CNE.902920402
Abstract: We have measured the spatial density of cones and rods in eight whole-mounted human retinas, obtained from seven individuals between 27 and 44 years of age, and constructed maps of photoreceptor density and between-individual variability. The average human retina contains 4.6 million cones (4.08-5.29 million). Peak foveal cone density averages 199,000 cones/mm2 and is highly variable between individuals (100,000-324,000 cones/mm2). The point of highest density may be found in an area as large as 0.032 deg2. Cone density falls steeply with increasing eccentricity and is an order of magnitude lower 1 mm away from the foveal center. Superimposed on this gradient is a streak of high cone density along the horizontal meridian. At equivalent eccentricities, cone density is 40-45% higher in nasal compared to temporal retina and slightly higher in midperipheral inferior compared to superior retina. Cone density also increases slightly in far nasal retina. The average human retina contains 92 million rods (77.9-107.3 million). In the fovea, the average horizontal diameter of the rod-free zone is 0.350 mm (1.25 degrees). Foveal rod density increases most rapidly superiorly and least rapidly nasally. The highest rod densities are located along an elliptical ring at the eccentricity of the optic disk and extending into nasal retina with the point of highest density typically in superior retina (5/6 eyes). Rod densities decrease by 15-25% where the ring crosses the horizontal meridian. Rod density declines slowly from the rod ring to the far periphery and is highest in nasal and superior retina. Individual variability in photoreceptor density differs with retinal region and is similar for both cones and rods. Variability is highest near the fovea, reaches a minimum in the midperiphery, and then increases with eccentricity to the ora serrata. The total number of foveal cones is similar for eyes with widely varying peak cone density, consistent with the idea that the variability reflects differences in the lateral migration of photoreceptors during development. Two fellow eyes had cone and rod numbers within 8% and similar but not identical photoreceptor topography.

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Topics: Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells (58%), Optic disk (54%), Ora serrata (54%) ... show more

2,260 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.7434030
12 Dec 1980-Science
Abstract: Bright artificial light suppressed nocturnal secretion of melatonin in six normal human subjects. Room light of less intensity, which is sufficient to suppress melatonin secretion in other mammals, failed to do so in humans. In contrast to the results of previous experiments in which ordinary room light was used, these findings establish that the human response to light is qualitatively similar to that of other mammals.

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Topics: Light intensity (67%), Melatonin (59%)

1,705 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.21-16-06405.2001
Abstract: The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 +/- 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence-response curves (R(2) = 0.81-0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R(2) = 0.91), which identifies 446-477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.

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Topics: Photopigment (60%), Melatonin (57%), Melanopsin (56%) ... show more

1,559 Citations


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