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Journal ArticleDOI

The measurement of experienced burnout

01 Apr 1981-Journal of Organizational Behavior (JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL BEHAVIOR)-Vol. 2, Iss: 2, pp 99-113

Abstract: A scale designed to assess various aspects of the burnout syndrome was administered to a wide range of human services professionals. Three subscales emerged from the data analysis: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Various psychometric analyses showed that the scale has both high reliability and validity as a measure of burnout.
Topics: Occupational burnout (65%), Burnout (63%), Emotional exhaustion (58%), Depersonalization (51%)
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This study examines the factorial structure of a new instrument to measure engagement, the hypothesized `opposite' of burnout in a sample of university students (N=314) and employees (N=619). In addition, the factorial structure of the Maslach-Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) is assessed and the relationship between engagement and burnout is examined. Simultaneous confirmatory factor analyses in both samples confirmed the original three-factor structure of the MBI-GS (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) as well as the hypothesized three-factor structure of engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption). Contrary to expectations, a model with two higher-order factors – ‘burnout’ and ‘engagement’ – did not show a superior fit to the data. Instead, our analyses revealed an alternative model with two latent factors including: (1) exhaustion and cynicism (‘core of burnout’); (2) all three engagement scales plus efficacy. Both latent factors are negatively related and share between 22% and 38% of their variances in both samples. Despite the fact that slightly different versions of the MBI-GS and the engagement questionnaire had to be used in both samples the results were remarkably similar across samples, which illustrates the robustness of our findings.

6,198 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Raymond T. Lee, Blake E. Ashforth1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout, finding that emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates.
Abstract: This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.

2,813 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Researchers report on a 3-sample study that developed and validated short, self-report scales of work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC). Using conceptualizations consistent with the current literature, the researchers offer content domains and definitions of the constructs. Advocated procedures were used to develop the scales and test dimensionality and internal consistency. Estimates of construct validity are presented by relating the scales to 16 other on- and off-job constructs. Mean-level difference tests between WFC and FWC also provide evidence of validity.

2,705 citations

Cites background or methods from "The measurement of experienced burn..."

  • ...Prior research also indicates that WFC is more strongly related to job burnout and job tension than FWC (O'Driscoll et al., 1992; Frone et al., 1992; Judge et al., 1994; Maslach & Jackson, 1981)....


  • ...It has been suggested that WFC and FWC should be positively associated with job burnout, job tension, job role conflict, and job role ambiguity (Bedeian et al., 1988; Frone et al., 1992; Maslach & Jackson, 1981)....


  • ...Job burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; (Maslach & Jackson, 1981)....


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Burnout is a unique type of stress syndrome, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished personal accomplishment. Although burnout has been shown to be potentially very costly in the helping professions, such as nursing, education, and social work, little work has been done thus far to establish its generalizability to industry. This article reviews the literature on burnout and provides a conceptual framework designed to improve the understanding of burnout. Propositions are presented that are aimed at clarifying the dynamics of burnout, including determinants of and interrelationships among the three burnout components.

2,284 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Manuel Barrera1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Le concept de support social doit etre abandonne au profit de concepts plus pertinents fondes sur les modeles de relations entre stress et detresse

2,143 citations

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Journal ArticleDOI
J. Richard Hackman1, Greg R. OldhamInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The properties and uses of the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) are described The JDS is intended (a) to diagnose existing jobs to determine if (and how) they might be redesigned to improve employee motivation and productivity, and (b) to evaluate the effects of job changes on employees The instrument is based on a specific theory of how job design affects work motivation, and provides measures of (a) objective job dimensions, (b) individual psychological states resulting from these dimensions, (c) affective reactions of employees to the job and work setting, and (d) individual growth need strength (interpreted as the readiness of individuals to respond to "enriched" jobs) Reliability and validity data are summarized for 6S& employees on 62 different jobs in 7 organizations who have responded to a revised version of the instrument

6,166 citations

"The measurement of experienced burn..." refers background in this paper

  • ...And indeed, low scores on the JDS subscale of 'knowledge of results' (n = 91) were correlated with high scores on Emotional 1 08 Christina Maslach and Susan E. Jackson Exhaustion (r = -0.21, p < 0.05) and Depersonalization (r = -0.28. p < 0.01), and with low scores on Personal Accomplishment (frequency only, r = 0.20, p < 0.05)....


  • ...A personal assessment of certain basic job dimensions is part of the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) (Hackman and Oldham, 1974, 1975)....


  • ...A comparison of subjects' scores on the MBI and the JDS measure of general job satisfaction' (n = 91 social service and mental health workers) provides support for this reasoning....


  • ...With respect to the co-workers themselves, staff scoring low on the JDS subscale of 'peer and co-worker satisfaction' (n = 180) scored high on Emotional Exhaustion (r = -0.19, p 0.01) and Depersonalization (r = -0.36, p 0.001), and low on Personal Accomplishment (r = 0.32, p 0.001)....


  • ...Scores on the JDS measure of 'growth satisfaction' were negatively correlated with Emotional Exhaustion (r = -0.26, p 0.001) and Depersonalization (r = -0.39, p 0.001), and positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment (r = 0.29, p 0.001)....


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The concept of staff burn-out is explored in terms of the physical signs and the behavioral indicators. There is a discussion of how the cognitive, the judgmental as well as the emotional factors are intruded upon once the process is in motion. Further material deals with who is prone to staff burn-out and what dedication and commitment can imply from both a positive and negative point of view. A practical section deals with what preventive measures a clinic staff can take to avoid burn-out among themselves, and if unluckily it has taken place then what measures may be taken to insure caring for that person, and the possibility of his return to the clinic at some future time.

3,309 citations

01 Jan 1971-

2,023 citations

"The measurement of experienced burn..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This callous or even dehumanized perception of others can lead staff to view their clients as somehow deserving of their troubles (Ryan, 1971), and the prevalence among human service professionals of this negative attitude toward clients has been well documented (Wills, 1978)....


01 May 1974-
Abstract: : The report describes the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS), an instrument designed to measure the following three classes of variables: (1) The objective characteristics of jobs, particularly the degree to which jobs are designed so that they enhance the internal work motivation and the job satisfaction of people who do them; (2) The personal affective reactions of individuals to their jobs and to the broader work setting; and (3) the readiness of individuals to respond positively to 'enriched' jobs--i.e., jobs which have measured potential for generating internal work motivation. The JDS is based on a specific theory of how jobs affect employee motivation. It is intended for two general types of use: For diagnosing existing jobs to determine if (and how) they might be re- designed to improve employee productivity and satisfaction; and for evaluating the effect of job changes on employees--whether the changes derive from deliberate 'job enrichment' projects or from naturally-occurring modifications of technology or work systems.

722 citations

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