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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/09571736.2018.1504229

The measurement of implicit and explicit knowledge

04 Mar 2021-Language Learning Journal (Routledge)-Vol. 49, Iss: 2, pp 160-175
Abstract: This article presents a review of research that has investigated ways of measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language (L2), focusing on grammar. It begins by defining implicit and...

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Topics: Explicit knowledge (63%), Grammar (57%), Psycholinguistics (55%) ... read more
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10 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/LANG.12405
John N. Williams1Institutions (1)
01 Jun 2020-Language Learning
Topics: Implicit learning (82%), Artificial grammar learning (79%), Sequence learning (71%) ... read more

8 Citations


Open accessDissertationDOI: 10.17635/LANCASTER/THESIS/566
16 May 2018-
Abstract: A study with 40 L1 Italian 8-9 year old children and its replication with 36 L1 Italian adults investigated the role of declarative and procedural learning ability in the early stages of language learning. The studies investigated: (1) the extent to which memory-related abilities predicted L2 learning of form-meaning mapping between syntax and thematic interpretation, word order and case marking; and (2) the nature of the acquired L2 knowledge in terms of the implicit/explicit distinction. Deploying a computer game in incidental instruction conditions, the participants were aurally trained in the artificial language BrocantoJ over three sessions. Standardized memory tasks, vocabulary learning ability, and an alternating serial reaction time task provided measures of visual/verbal declarative and procedural learning ability. Language learning was assessed via a measure of comprehension during practice and a grammaticality judgment test. Generalized mixed-effects models fitted to both experimental datasets revealed that, although adults attained higher accuracy levels and were faster learners compared to children, the two groups did not differ qualitatively in what they learned. However, by the end of the experiment, adults displayed higher explicit knowledge of syntactic and semantic regularities. During practice, declarative learning ability predicted accuracy in both groups, but procedural learning ability significantly increased only in children. The procedural learning ability effect emerged again significantly only in the child grammaticality judgment test dataset. In the practice data declarative learning ability and vocabulary learning ability interacted negatively with procedural learning ability in children, whereas declarative learning ability interacted positively with procedural learning ability in adults. Moreover, the positive interaction in adults only obtained for a subset of practice stimuli, i.e. sentences where the processing of linking between morphosyntax and thematic interpretation was required. Overall, the findings support age-related differences and linguistic target differences in the way abilities related to long-term memory predict language learning.

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Topics: Declarative learning (67%), Procedural memory (56%), Language acquisition (54%) ... read more

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17265/2159-5836/2019.09.005
Abstract: Implicit knowledge acquisition is the goal of second language (L2) learning. Ellis (2006; 2009) argues that it is implicit rather than explicit knowledge which underlines linguistic competence reflected in actual speech production and comprehension. Thus, this review aims to elucidatethe theoretical nature of implicit and explicit linguistics knowledge and how these types of knowledge are distinguished in terms of their representation and processing in use. The overall goal is to make the understanding of implicit knowledge easier to a wide audience of L2 researchers, especially those who are not interested in the absence of awareness of the target feature to be learnt at the point of learning.

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4 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.32601/EJAL.775806
31 Jul 2020-
Abstract: One of the major issues in SLA is developing language tests that could produce good measures of implicit knowledge. This study examines the validity of an English Elicited Imitation (EI) test as a measure of L2 implicit grammatical knowledge. Forty freshman university students in Turkey took a set of language tests: an EI test, two storytelling tasks, a picture description task, IELTS listening sample tests and a speaking test. Four English morphemes were chosen as the target structures: third person ‘-s’, plural ‘-s’, simple past ‘-ed’, and comparative ‘-er’. Results from a principal component analysis showed that all measures were loaded on a single component labelled as implicit knowledge. Significant correlations with varying magnitude were also recorded between learners’ EI scores for the target structures and their scores on other time-pressured measures: r = .63, r = .63, r = .65 and r = .43, for third person ‘-s’, simple past ‘-ed’, plural ‘-s’ and comparative ‘-er’, respectively. These findings suggest that the likelihood of EI measuring L2 implicit grammatical knowledge may vary depending on language structures.

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Topics: Plural (52%), Morpheme (51%)

2 Citations


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38 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17265/2159-5313/2016.09.003
28 Sep 2016-Philosophy study
Abstract: There has been a shift from the general presumption that “doctor knows best” to a heightened respect for patient autonomy. Medical ethics remains one-sided, however. It tends (incorrectly) to interpret patient autonomy as mere participation in decisions, rather than a willingness to take the consequences. In this respect, medical ethics remains largely paternalistic, requiring doctors to protect patients from the consequences of their decisions. This is reflected in a one-sided account of duties in medical ethics. Medical ethics may exempt patients from obligations because they are the weaker or more vulnerable party in the doctor-patient relationship. We argue that vulnerability does not exclude obligation. We also look at others ways in which patients’ responsibilities flow from general ethics: for instance, from responsibilities to others and to the self, from duties of citizens, and from the responsibilities of those who solicit advice. Finally, we argue that certain duties of patients counterbalance an otherwise unfair captivity of doctors as helpers.

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Topics: Nursing ethics (83%), Medical ethics (65%)

9,859 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COGNITION.2003.10.008
Michael T. Ullman1Institutions (1)
01 May 2004-Cognition
Abstract: The structure of the brain and the nature of evolution suggest that, despite its uniqueness, language likely depends on brain systems that also subserve other functions. The declarative/procedural (DP) model claims that the mental lexicon of memorized word-specific knowledge depends on the largely temporal-lobe substrates of declarative memory, which underlies the storage and use of knowledge of facts and events. The mental grammar, which subserves the rule-governed combination of lexical items into complex representations, depends on a distinct neural system. This system, which is composed of a network of specific frontal, basal-ganglia, parietal and cerebellar structures, underlies procedural memory, which supports the learning and execution of motor and cognitive skills, especially those involving sequences. The functions of the two brain systems, together with their anatomical, physiological and biochemical substrates, lead to specific claims and predictions regarding their roles in language. These predictions are compared with those of other neurocognitive models of language. Empirical evidence is presented from neuroimaging studies of normal language processing, and from developmental and adult-onset disorders. It is argued that this evidence supports the DP model. It is additionally proposed that "language" disorders, such as specific language impairment and non-fluent and fluent aphasia, may be profitably viewed as impairments primarily affecting one or the other brain system. Overall, the data suggest a new neurocognitive framework for the study of lexicon and grammar.

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Topics: Language disorder (61%), Specific language impairment (59%), Lexicon (57%) ... read more

1,386 Citations


Open accessBook
Michel Paradis1Institutions (1)
02 Jun 2004-
Abstract: This volume is the outcome of 25 years of research into the neurolinguistic aspects of bilingualism. In addition to reviewing the world literature and providing a state-of-the-art account, including a critical assessment of the bilingual neuroimaging studies, it proposes a set of hypotheses about the representation, organization and processing of two or more languages in one brain. It investigates the impact of the various manners of acquisition and use of each language on the extent of involvement of basic cerebral functional mechanisms. The effects of pathology as a means to understanding the normal functioning of verbal communication processes in the bilingual and multilingual brain are explored and compared with data from neuroimaging studies. In addition to its obvious research benefits, the clinical and social reasons for assessment of bilingual aphasia with a measuring instrument that is linguistically and culturally equivalent in each of a patient’s languages are stressed. The relationship between language and thought in bilinguals is examined in the light of evidence from pathology. The proposed linguistic theory of bilingualism integrates a neurofunctional model (the components of verbal communication and their relationships: implicit linguistic competence, metalinguistic knowledge, pragmatics, and motivation) and a set of hypotheses about language processing (neurofunctional modularity, the activation threshold, the language/cognition distinction, and the direct access hypothesis).

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Topics: Neuroscience of multilingualism (56%), Linguistic competence (55%), Language and thought (53%) ... read more

797 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1017/S0272263105050096
Rod Ellis1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A problem facing investigations of implicit and explicit learning is the lack of valid measures of second language implicit and explicit knowledge. This paper attempts to establish operational definitions of these two constructs and reports a psychometric study of a battery of tests designed to provide relatively independent measures of them. These tests were (a) an oral imitation test involving grammatical and ungrammatical sentences, (b) an oral narration test, (c) a timed grammaticality judgment test (GJT), (d) an untimed GJT with the same content, and (e) a metalinguistic knowledge test. Tests (a), (b), and (c) were designed as measures of implicit knowledge, and tests (d) and (e) were designed as measures of explicit knowledge. All of the tests examined 17 English grammatical structures. A principal component factor analysis produced two clear factors. This analysis showed that the scores from tests (a), (b), and (c) loaded on Factor 1, whereas the scores from ungrammatical sentences in test (d) and total scores from test (e) loaded on Factor 2. These two factors are interpreted as corresponding to implicit and explicit knowledge, respectively. A number of secondary analyses to support this interpretation of the construct validity of the tests are also reported.This research was funded by a Marsden Fund grant awarded by the Royal Society of Arts of New Zealand to Rod Ellis and Cathie Elder. Other researchers who contributed to the research are Shawn Loewen, Rosemary Erlam, Satomi Mizutani, and Shuhei Hidaka.The author wishes to thank Nick Ellis, Jim Lantolf, and two anonymous SSLA reviewers. Their constructive comments have helped me to present the theoretical background of the study more convincingly and to remove errors from the results and refine my interpretations of them.

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Topics: Explicit knowledge (52%), Grammaticality (52%), Test (assessment) (51%)

753 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1002/9780470756492.CH11
11 Jan 2008-
Topics: Experiential learning (77%), Implicit learning (76%), Algorithmic learning theory (76%) ... read more

735 Citations


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