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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13052752

The Motivation of Academics in Remote Teaching during the Covid-19 Pandemic in Polish Universities—Opening the Debate on a New Equilibrium in e-Learning

04 Mar 2021-Sustainability (MDPI AG)-Vol. 13, Iss: 5, pp 2752
Abstract: Online learning helps to continue education in the face of Covid-19 lockdowns and social isolation, but it might largely change characteristics of academic teachers’ jobs and, thus, have some unintended consequences for teachers’ motivating job potential. In this study, using a convenience sample of 202 academic teachers, we tested and supported the hypothesis that academic teachers perceived their motivating job potential as lower during the forced Covid-19 e-learning than before it. We also provided evidence that motivating potential of work during the forced Covid-19 e-learning is associated with work engagement and job satisfaction. Moreover, we provided a modicum of evidence that the relationship between the motivating job potential and academic teachers’ job satisfaction might be moderated by teachers’ assessment of university management actions during the Covid-19 situation, such that this association seems to be stronger among teachers who more positively assess university management. Our results provided initial evidence of possible unintended consequences of the pandemic-forced e-learning for academic teachers. Therefore, we suggested that socially sustainable e-learning required not only concentration on students and organizations of the education process but also on improving the teachers’ motivating job potential.

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Topics: Job satisfaction (61%)
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5334/JIME.631
Allison Littlejohn1, Lesley Gourlay1, Eileen J. Kennedy1, Kit Logan1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: This empirical study examines the experiences of academics and professional service staff in a large UK university during first weeks of the transition to online teaching and working from home during the Covid-19 pandemic. The method draws on the work by Gourlay and Oliver (2018) to explore engagement with the digital university in everyday practice. Using data from 412 survey responses and 32 interviews, the study traces varying ways staff characterised themselves during the first months of lockdown in the UK (from March to July, 2020). The findings highlight that university support services underwent a metamorphosis to support the transition to online teaching. However, insufficient attention was paid to the ‘identity crisis’ and threats perceived by academics who were used to teaching students on campus. Academics tended to focus on transferring traditional teaching practices to the online environment, rather than on changing teaching practice, leaving face-to-face teaching as the default point of reference. These cultural barriers are a persistent obstacle to a more productive engagement with digitalisation. Transitioning to online teaching involves continuing existing work while also learning new practices. Such efforts were challenging for teaching staff who did not have dedicated space at home to work and those with caring responsibilities. This, combined with gendered patterns around caring and the extra support needed by students during the crisis, added emotional labour to already-full workloads. We recommend that intersecting forms of disadvantage be acknowledged, supported and rewarded for universities to create sustainable and just futures.

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3 Citations


01 Jun 2021-
Abstract: COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted on every aspect of mankind. Education sector is not left behind. Many education organizations around the world are closed now. The whole education system specially teaching-learning, knowledge sharing, evaluation methods etc. have been shifted from offline to online platform. Teachers are forced to work from home and they persistently trying to adopt new modes of virtual teaching. The new normal working process is challenging for them in keeping their motivation to work. Lack of physical face to face communication with students, colleagues, the Principals is affecting in teachers' motivation to work. This research study is an explorative case study and the sample was selected by using purposive sampling technique. For this study 9 female teachers of a Kolkata based college, West Bengal were chosen. They were interviewed on telephone to collect data. In-depth interview derived findings are divided into themes and discussed. This study will be beneficial for the higher education authority to concentrate on the role of virtual interpersonal communication in respect of teachers' motivation.

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Topics: Interpersonal communication (56%), Employee motivation (53%), Higher education (52%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13094751
01 Jan 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: Lack of guidelines for implementing distance learning, lack of infrastructure, lack of competencies, and security-related problems were the challenges met during the pandemic. These challenges firstly fall on the administration of a higher education institution. To assist in solving the challenges of the pandemic for the administration of a higher education institution, the paper presents several models for the organization of the processes of distance learning. These models are as follows: a conceptual model of distance learning, a model of strategic planning of distance learning, a model of the assessment before the start of distance learning, a model of the preparation for distance learning, and a model of the process of distance learning and remote work. Student profile, lecturer profile, organizational environment, assessment, and planning of the infrastructure of information and communication technology (ICT), assessment and planning of the virtual learning environment, and assessment of distance learning competencies of participants of the study process are also considered. The developed models are based on five main processes of instructional design, i.e., analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The models provide guidelines for the administration of higher education institutions on the preparation and delivery of distance learning during the pandemic. The models were validated by 10 experts from different higher education institutions. The feasibility of the data collection instrument was determined by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient that is above 0.9.

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Topics: Virtual learning environment (62%), Distance education (59%), Instructional design (56%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EDUCSCI11090543
15 Sep 2021-Education Sciences
Abstract: The COVID-19 confinement has represented both opportunities and losses for education. Rarely before has any other period moved the human spirit into such discipline or submission—depending on one’s personal and emotional points of view. Both extremes have been widely influenced by external factors on each individual’s life path. Education in the sciences and engineering has encountered more issues than other disciplines due to specialized mathematical handwriting, experimental demonstrations, abstract complexity, and lab practices. This work analyses three aspects of science education courses taught by university professors in a collaborative teacher cluster, sharing technology applications and education methodologies in science over three semesters when the COVID-19 lockdown was in effect. The first aspect was a didactic design coming from several educational frameworks through adoption or sharing. The second one was an analysis by discipline of multiple factors affecting student engagement during the health contingency. The third analysis examined the gains and losses in our students caused by the university closure and the pandemic’s intrusions. The report explores the correlations of the exiting student perceptions with their academic performance in the courses and survey results about the impact of decisions or happenings during the crisis. This work’s value lies in the lessons for the future of education concerning the teacher dominions of didactic design, support, and collaboration in a broader sense than only for teaching.

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Topics: Science education (61%), Higher education (58%), Student engagement (56%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU131810296
15 Sep 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: The main idea of this investigation is to identify a series of challenges and opportunities presented by telecommuting within the school system as a result of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. The objective of the paper is to identify key elements which are able to provide concrete assistance in building a sustainable online education system, with particular reference to Romania, as a system that can be used beyond the timeframe of the current pandemic. The methodology used for our scientific investigation is quantitative, based on an eight-item data collection instrument/questionnaire with 459 respondents (bachelor, masters, doctoral, and postdoctoral students—which makes this research a study from the perspective of the students’ perceptions) with ages ranging from 18 to 53. In terms of results, the eight items were evaluated on a Likert Scale from 1 to 5, leading to the formulation of seven hypotheses (H1 to H6), of which six were accepted and one was rejected (H7) (the questionnaire has a margin error/confidence interval of ±4.5% and a confidence level of P = 95%). We concluded from the six validated hypotheses, coupled with the one which was invalidated, that telecommuting to online education was not only successful but also garnered a system characterized by sustainability. Despite the swiftness of telecommuting to online education and the perceptions of the student population, online learning can be efficient and sustainable, in which case further government policies can only improve a system that has already been proven to work.

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Topics: Telecommuting (55%), Likert scale (52%)

1 Citations


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42 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0030-5073(76)90016-7
J. Richard Hackman1, Greg R. Oldham2Institutions (2)
Abstract: A model is proposed that specifies the conditions under which individuals will become internally motivated to perform effectively on their jobs. The model focuses on the interaction among three classes of variables: (a) the psychological states of employees that must be present for internally motivated work behavior to develop; (b) the characteristics of jobs that can create these psychological states; and (c) the attributes of individuals that determine how positively a person will respond to a complex and challenging job. The model was tested for 658 employees who work on 62 different jobs in seven organizations, and results support its validity. A number of special features of the model are discussed (including its use as a basis for the diagnosis of jobs and the evaluation of job redesign projects), and the model is compared to other theories of job design.

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Topics: Job characteristic theory (66%), Job analysis (63%), Job design (62%) ... read more

6,894 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/H0076546
J. Richard Hackman1, Greg R. OldhamInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The properties and uses of the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) are described The JDS is intended (a) to diagnose existing jobs to determine if (and how) they might be redesigned to improve employee motivation and productivity, and (b) to evaluate the effects of job changes on employees The instrument is based on a specific theory of how job design affects work motivation, and provides measures of (a) objective job dimensions, (b) individual psychological states resulting from these dimensions, (c) affective reactions of employees to the job and work setting, and (d) individual growth need strength (interpreted as the readiness of individuals to respond to "enriched" jobs) Reliability and validity data are summarized for 6S& employees on 62 different jobs in 7 organizations who have responded to a revised version of the instrument

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Topics: Job analysis (70%), Work motivation (67%), Job design (66%) ... read more

6,166 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/A0019364
Abstract: We refine and extend the job demands-resources model with theory regarding appraisal of stressors to account for inconsistencies in relationships between demands and engagement, and we test the revised theory using meta-analytic structural modeling. Results indicate support for the refined and updated theory. First, demands and burnout were positively associated, whereas resources and burnout were negatively associated. Second, whereas relationships among resources and engagement were consistently positive, relationships among demands and engagement were highly dependent on the nature of the demand. Demands that employees tend to appraise as hindrances were negatively associated with engagement, and demands that employees tend to appraise as challenges were positively associated with engagement. Implications for future research are discussed.

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Topics: Job demands-resources model (62%), Employee engagement (58%), Occupational burnout (56%) ... read more

1,732 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1744-6570.1987.TB00605.X
Yitzhak Fried1, Gerald R. Ferris2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The validity of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model was assessed by conducting a comprehensive review of nearly 200 relevant studies on the model as well as by applying meta-analytic procedures to a large portion of the data. The evidence indicated that the available correlational results are reasonably valid in light of the issues examined. Results tended to support the multidimensionality of job characteristics, but there was less agreement on the exact number of dimensions. The corrected correlational results of the meta-analysis indicated that job characteristics related both to psychological and behavioral outcomes. Concerning psychological states, the results tended to support their mediating (e.g., intervening) role between job characteristics and personal outcomes. The pattern of correlations between the job characteristics and psychological states was less supportive of the model. Meta-analytic results demonstrated that most of the cross-study variance was due to statistical artifacts. True variance across studies was found for the job characteristics-performance relationship, however, and subsequent analyses suggested that growth-need strength moderates this relationship. Implications for potential revisions of the model and for practice are discussed.

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1,529 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/OCP0000056
Abstract: The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was introduced in the international literature 15 years ago (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). The model has been applied in thousands of organizations and has inspired hundreds of empirical articles, including 1 of the most downloaded articles of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005). This article provides evidence for the buffering role of various job resources on the impact of various job demands on burnout. In the present article, we look back on the first 10 years of the JD-R model (2001-2010), and discuss how the model matured into JD-R theory (2011-2016). Moreover, we look at the future of the theory and outline which new issues in JD-R theory are worthwhile of investigation. We also discuss practical applications. It is our hope that JD-R theory will continue to inspire researchers and practitioners who want to promote employee well-being and effective organizational functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record

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Topics: Job demands-resources model (62%), Job characteristic theory (60%), Job analysis (59%) ... read more

1,233 Citations