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The New Muslims of Post-Conquest Iran: Tradition, Memory, and Conversion

30 Sep 2013-
TL;DR: In this article, the prophet Mohammad's Persian companion, Salman al-Farisi, was described as a prophet who asserted the end of the past and reformed Iranians' memories of pre-Islamic times.
Abstract: 1. Prior connections to Islam 2. Muhammad's Persian companion, Salman al-Farisi 3. Finding meaning in the past 4. Reforming Iranians' memories of pre-Islamic times 5. The unhappy prophet 6. Asserting the end of the past.

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01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: In this article, a theoretical analysis of socio-economic underdevelopment in Iran in the modern era is presented, based on the Foucault's conceived relation between the production of truth and production of wealth.
Abstract: This study entails a theoretical reading of the Iranian modern history and follows an interdisciplinary agenda at the intersection of philosophy, economics, and politics and intends to offer a novel framework for the analysis of socio-economic underdevelopment in Iran in the modern era. A brief review of Iranian modern history from the constitutional revolution, to the oil nationalization movement, the 1979 Islamic Revolution, and the recent Reformist and Green movements demonstrates that Iranian people travelled full circle. This historical experience of socio-economic underdevelopment revolving around the bitter question of “why are we backward?” and its manifestation in perpetual socio-political instability and violence is the subject matter of this study. Foucault’s conceived relation between the production of truth and production of wealth captures the essence of hypothesis offered in this study. Michel Foucault (1980: 93-4) maintains that “In the last analysis, we must produce truth as we must produce wealth, indeed we must produce truth in order to produce wealth in the first place”. Based on a hybrid methodology combining hermeneutics of understanding and hermeneutics of suspicion, this study proposes that the failure to produce wealth has had particular roots in the failure in the production of truth. At the heart of the proposed theoretical model is the following formula: The Iranian dasein’s confused preference structure culminates in the formation of unstable coalitions which in turn leads to institutional failure, creating a chaotic social order and a turbulent history as experienced by the Iranian nation in the modern era. The following set of interrelated propositions elaborate further on the core formula of the model: Each and every Iranian person and her subjectivity and preference structure is the site of three distinct warring regimes of truth and identity choice sets (identity markers) related to the ancient Persian empire (Persianism), Islam, and modernity. These three historical a priori and regimes of truth act as conditions of possibility for social interactions, and are unities in multiplicities. They, in their perpetual state of tension and conflict, constitute the mutually exclusive, contradictory, and confused dimensions of the prism of the Iranian dasein. The confused preference structure prevents Iranian people from organizing themselves in stable coalitions required for collective action to achieve the desired socio-economic change. The complex interplay between the state of inbetweenness and the state of belatedness makes it impossible to form stable coalitions in any areas of life, work, and language to achieve the desired social transformations, turning Iran into a country of unstable coalitions and alliances in macro, meso and micro levels. This in turn leads to failure in the construction of stable institutions (a social order based on rule of law or any other stable institutional structure becomes impossible) due to perpetual tension between alternative regimes of truth manifested in warring discursive formations, relations of power, and techniques of subjectification and their associated economies of affectivity. This in turn culminates in relations of power in all micro, meso, and macro levels to become discretionary, atomic, and unpredictable, producing perpetual tensions and social violence in almost all sites of social interactions, and generating small and large social earthquakes (crises, movements, and revolutions) as experienced by the Iranian people in their modern history. As such, the society oscillates between the chaotic states of socio-political anarchy emanating from irreconcilable differences between and within social assemblages and their affiliated hybrid forms of regimes of truth in the springs of freedom and repressive states of order in the winters of discontent. Each time, after the experience of chaos, the order is restored based on the emergence of a final arbiter (Iranian leviathan) as the evolved coping strategy for achieving conflict resolution. This highly volatile truth cycle produces the experience of socio-economic backwardness. The explanatory power of the theoretical framework offered in the study exploring the relation between the production of truth, trust and wealth is tested on three strong events of Iranian modern history: the Constitutional Revolution, the Oil-Nationalization Movement and the Islamic Revolution. The significant policy implications of the model are explored.

52 citations

17 Apr 2018
TL;DR: In this article, Hameen-Anttila analyzed the lost sixth-century history of the Sasanians, its lost Arabic translations, and the sources of Firdawsi's Shāhnāme.
Abstract: In Khwadāynāmag. The Middle Persian Book of Kings Jaakko Hameen-Anttila analyses the lost sixth-century historiographical work of the Sasanians, its lost Arabic translations, and the sources of Firdawsī's Shāhnāme .

33 citations

25 Oct 2018
TL;DR: The transmission of Khalifa's Tarikh is discussed in this article, where Baqi b. Makhlad and Musa b. Zakariyya al-Tustari discuss the difference between the Recensions and the Question of Authorship.
Abstract: Acknowledgements Note on Conventions Introduction 1 Subject and Scope 2 Previous Studies on Khalifa's Tarikh 3 Manuscripts and Published Editions 1 The Transmission of Khalifa's Tarikh 1 Introduction 2 The Transmitters: Baqi b. Makhlad and Musa b. Zakariyya al-Tustari 3 Differences between the Recensions and the Question of Authorship 4 Missing Material in Baqi's Recension 5 Conclusion 2 Khalifa's Life and Works 1 Introduction 2 Biography 3 Works 4 Scholarly Reputation 5 Khalifa's Tarikh in Later Scholarship 6 Conclusion 3 Social and Intellectual Context 1 Introduction 2 Social and Political Context 3 Intellectual Context 4 Historiographical Context 5 Conclusion 4 Khalifa's Sources 1 Introduction 2 Main Direct Transmitters (20-110 Citations) 3 Less Frequently Cited Direct Transmitters (5-19 Citations) 4 Minor Direct Transmitters (1-4 Citations) 5 Major Indirect Sources 6 Analysis of Material 7 Conclusion 5 Khalifa's Methods 1 Introduction 2 Epistemology of Historical Knowledge 3 System of Reference 4 Selection and Evaluation of Transmitters 5 Conclusion 6 Structure and Arrangement of the Tarikh 1 Introduction 2 Concept of Chronography 3 General Structure: Annalistic and Caliphal Chronology 4 Structure of Individual Years and Lists 5 Conclusion 7 Themes I: Prophethood, Community and Hegemony 1 Introduction 2 Prophethood 3 Community 4 Hegemony 5 Conclusion 8 Themes II: Leadership and Civil War 1 Introduction 2 The Rashidun Period 3 The Umayyad Period 4 The 'Abbasid Period 5 Conclusion Conclusion 1 Overview 2 Methods, Concerns and Contexts of the Early Historians 3 Chronography among the Early Hadith Scholars 4 Articulations of Sunni Views in the Early Historical Tradition Appendix: Citations of Khalifa in al-Bukhari's al-Jami' al-sahih Bibliography Index

28 citations

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01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: The first comprehensive English-language translation of Halbwachs' writings on the social construction of memory was published by Coser as mentioned in this paper, which fills a major gap in the literature on the sociology of knowledge.
Abstract: How do we use our mental images of the present to reconstruct our past? Maurice Halbwachs (1877-1945) addressed this question for the first time in his work on collective memory, which established him as a major figure in the history of sociology. This volume, the first comprehensive English- language translation of Halbwach's writings on the social construction of memory, fills a major gap in the literature on the sociology of knowledge. Halbwachs' primary thesis is that human memory can only function within a collective context. Collective memory, Halbwachs asserts, is always selective; various groups of people have different collective memories, which in turn give rise to different modes of behavior. Halbwachs shows, for example, how pilgrims to the Holy Land over the centuries evoked very different images of the events of Jesus' life; how wealthy old families in France have a memory of the past that diverges sharply from that of the nouveaux riches; and how working class constructions of reality differ from those of their middle-class counterparts. With a detailed introduction by Lewis A. Coser, this translation will be an indispensable source for new research in historical sociology and cultural memory. Lewis A. Coser is Distinguished Professor of Sociology Emeritus at the State University of New York and Adjunct Professor of Sociology at Boston College. The Heritage of Sociology series

3,079 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the Durability of ethnic communities in pre-modern and modern history, including the formation of small nations, and their formation in the modern era.
Abstract: Preface. Note to Maps. Maps. Introduction. 1. Are Nations Modern?. a Modernistsa and a Primordialistsa . Ethnie, Myths and Symbols. The Durability of Ethnic Communities. Part I: Ethnic Communities in Pre--Modern Eras:. 2. Foundations of Ethnic Community. The Dimensions of Ethnie. Some Bases of Ethnic Formation. Structure and persistence of Ethnie. 3. Ethnie and Ethnicism in History. Uniqueness and Exclusion. Ethnic Resistance and Renewal. External Threat and Ethnic Response. Two Types of Ethnic Mythomoteur. 4. Class and Ethnie in Agrarian Societies. Military Mobilization and Ethnic Consciousness. Two Types of Ethnie. Ethnic Polities. 5. Ethnic Survival and Dissolution. Location and Sovereignty. Demographic and Cultural Continuity. Dissolution of Ethnie. Ethnic Survival. Ethnic Socialization and Religious Renewal. Part II: Ethnie and Nations in the Modern Era. 6. The Formation of Nations. Western Revolutions. Territorial and Ethnic Nations. Nation--Formation. The Ethnic Model. Ethnic Solidarity or Political Citizenship?. 7. From Ethnie to Nation. Politicization of Ethnie. The New Priesthood. Autarchy and Territorialization. Mobilization and Inclusion. The New Imagination. 8. Legends and Landscapes. Nostalgia and Posterity. The Sense of a The Pasta . Romantic Nationalism as an a Historical Dramaa . Poetic Spaces: The Uses of Landscape. Golden Ages: The Uses of History. Myths and Nation--Building. 9. The Genealogy of Nations. Parmenideans and Heraclitans. The a Antiquitya of Nations. Transcending Ethnicity?. A World of Small Nations. Ethnic Mobilization and Global Security. Notes. Bibliography. Index.

2,576 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the look of age and the benefits and burdens of the past are discussed in the context of anachronism and changing the past in an attempt to understand how we know the past.
Abstract: List of illustrations Introduction Part I. Wanting The Past: 1. Reliving the past: dreams and nightmares 2. Benefits and burdens of the past 3. Ancients vs. moderns 4. The look of age Part II. Knowing The Past: 5. How we know the past Part III. Changing The Past: 6. Changing the past 7. Creative anachronism Bibliography and citation index General index.

2,295 citations

01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: A landmark work, "Memory, History, Forgetting" as discussed by the authors examines the reciprocal relationship between remembering and forgetting, revealing how this symbiosis influences both the perception of historical experience and the production of historical narrative.
Abstract: A landmark work, "Memory, History, Forgetting" examines the reciprocal relationship between remembering and forgetting, revealing how this symbiosis influences both the perception of historical experience and the production of historical narrative. A momentous achievement in Ricoeur's career, this book provides the crucial link between his "Time and Narrative" and "Oneself as Another", and his recent reflections on ethics and the problems of responsibility and representation.

1,144 citations

01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the history and national identity of nations in the world, and the history of modern nations in general.PART I - ETHNO-HISTORY and NATIONAL IDENTITY PART II - MYTHS and MEMORIES OF MODERN NATIONS

837 citations