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Journal ArticleDOI

The organization of the human cerebral cortex estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity

01 Sep 2011-Journal of Neurophysiology (American Physiological Society)-Vol. 106, Iss: 3, pp 1125-1165

AbstractInformation processing in the cerebral cortex involves interactions among distributed areas. Anatomical connectivity suggests that certain areas form local hierarchical relations such as within the visual system. Other connectivity patterns, particularly among association areas, suggest the presence of large-scale circuits without clear hierarchical relations. In this study the organization of networks in the human cerebrum was explored using resting-state functional connectivity MRI. Data from 1,000 subjects were registered using surface-based alignment. A clustering approach was employed to identify and replicate networks of functionally coupled regions across the cerebral cortex. The results revealed local networks confined to sensory and motor cortices as well as distributed networks of association regions. Within the sensory and motor cortices, functional connectivity followed topographic representations across adjacent areas. In association cortex, the connectivity patterns often showed abrupt transitions between network boundaries. Focused analyses were performed to better understand properties of network connectivity. A canonical sensory-motor pathway involving primary visual area, putative middle temporal area complex (MT+), lateral intraparietal area, and frontal eye field was analyzed to explore how interactions might arise within and between networks. Results showed that adjacent regions of the MT+ complex demonstrate differential connectivity consistent with a hierarchical pathway that spans networks. The functional connectivity of parietal and prefrontal association cortices was next explored. Distinct connectivity profiles of neighboring regions suggest they participate in distributed networks that, while showing evidence for interactions, are embedded within largely parallel, interdigitated circuits. We conclude by discussing the organization of these large-scale cerebral networks in relation to monkey anatomy and their potential evolutionary expansion in humans to support cognition.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Progress made during the first half of the Human Connectome Project project in refining the methods for data acquisition and analysis provides grounds for optimism that the HCP datasets and associated methods and software will become increasingly valuable resources for characterizing human brain connectivity and function, their relationship to behavior, and their heritability and genetic underpinnings.
Abstract: The Human Connectome Project consortium led by Washington University, University of Minnesota, and Oxford University is undertaking a systematic effort to map macroscopic human brain circuits and their relationship to behavior in a large population of healthy adults. This overview article focuses on progress made during the first half of the 5-year project in refining the methods for data acquisition and analysis. Preliminary analyses based on a finalized set of acquisition and preprocessing protocols demonstrate the exceptionally high quality of the data from each modality. The first quarterly release of imaging and behavioral data via the ConnectomeDB database demonstrates the commitment to making HCP datasets freely accessible. Altogether, the progress to date provides grounds for optimism that the HCP datasets and associated methods and software will become increasingly valuable resources for characterizing human brain connectivity and function, their relationship to behavior, and their heritability and genetic underpinnings.

3,196 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
17 Nov 2011-Neuron
Abstract: Real-world complex systems may be mathematically modeled as graphs, revealing properties of the system. Here we study graphs of functional brain organization in healthy adults using resting state functional connectivity MRI. We propose two novel brain-wide graphs, one of 264 putative functional areas, the other a modification of voxelwise networks that eliminates potentially artificial short-distance relationships. These graphs contain many subgraphs in good agreement with known functional brain systems. Other subgraphs lack established functional identities; we suggest possible functional characteristics for these subgraphs. Further, graph measures of the areal network indicate that the default mode subgraph shares network properties with sensory and motor subgraphs: it is internally integrated but isolated from other subgraphs, much like a "processing" system. The modified voxelwise graph also reveals spatial motifs in the patterning of systems across the cortex.

2,849 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
11 Aug 2016-Nature
TL;DR: Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, 180 areas per hemisphere are delineated bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults.
Abstract: Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal 'fingerprint' of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease.

2,373 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that motion-induced signal changes are often complex and variable waveforms, often shared across nearly all brain voxels, and often persist more than 10s after motion ceases, which increase observed RSFC correlations in a distance-dependent manner.
Abstract: Head motion systematically alters correlations in resting state functional connectivity fMRI (RSFC). In this report we examine impact of motion on signal intensity and RSFC correlations. We find that motion-induced signal changes (1) are often complex and variable waveforms, (2) are often shared across nearly all brain voxels, and (3) often persist more than 10s after motion ceases. These signal changes, both during and after motion, increase observed RSFC correlations in a distance-dependent manner. Motion-related signal changes are not removed by a variety of motion-based regressors, but are effectively reduced by global signal regression. We link several measures of data quality to motion, changes in signal intensity, and changes in RSFC correlations. We demonstrate that improvements in data quality measures during processing may represent cosmetic improvements rather than true correction of the data. We demonstrate a within-subject, censoring-based artifact removal strategy based on volume censoring that reduces group differences due to motion to chance levels. We note conditions under which group-level regressions do and do not correct motion-related effects.

2,038 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Head motion was associated with decreased functional coupling in the default and frontoparietal control networks--two networks characterized by coupling among distributed regions of association cortex and other network measures increased with motion including estimates of local functional coupling and coupling between left and right motor regions.
Abstract: Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) has been widely applied to explore group and individual differences. A confounding factor is head motion. Children move more than adults, older adults more than younger adults, and patients more than controls. Head motion varies considerably among individuals within the same population. Here we explored the influence of head motion on fcMRI estimates. Mean head displacement, maximum head displacement, the number of micro movements (>0.1 mm), and head rotation were estimated in 1000 healthy, young adult subjects each scanned for two resting-state runs on matched 3T scanners. The majority of fcMRI variation across subjects was not linked to head motion. However, head motion had significant, systematic effects on fcMRI network measures. Head motion was associated with decreased functional coupling in the default and frontoparietal control networks--two networks characterized by coupling among distributed regions of association cortex. Other network measures increased with motion including estimates of local functional coupling and coupling between left and right motor regions--a region pair sometimes used as a control in studies to establish specificity. Comparisons between groups of individuals with subtly different levels of head motion yielded difference maps that could be mistaken for neuronal effects in other contexts. These effects are important to consider when interpreting variation between groups and across individuals.

2,007 citations


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TL;DR: A new graphical display is proposed for partitioning techniques, where each cluster is represented by a so-called silhouette, which is based on the comparison of its tightness and separation, and provides an evaluation of clustering validity.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence for partially segregated networks of brain areas that carry out different attentional functions is reviewed, finding that one system is involved in preparing and applying goal-directed selection for stimuli and responses, and the other is specialized for the detection of behaviourally relevant stimuli.
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