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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13063295

The Pandemic City: Urban Issues in the Time of COVID-19

02 Mar 2021-Sustainability (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 13, Iss: 6, pp 3295
Abstract: Pandemics have shaped the way cities are planned and configured. Throughout history, cities have evolved to solve problems of sanitation, hygiene, and health access while providing space and opportunities for the urban dwellers. COVID-19 will have significant implications in the way cities are planned. This recent crisis highlights a number of issues. This paper looks at the context for the pandemic and then reviews studies and debates in four areas: transformations in the configuration of public spaces, transportation, urban connectivities, and urban economies. This pandemic, like other similar episodes in the past, is forcing us to rethink the nature of urban space and may be an opportunity to plan for safer, more sustainable cities.

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Topics: Urbanism (54%)

13 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/02673037.2012.617926
Ronan Paddison1Institutions (1)
30 Aug 2012-Housing Studies
Abstract: Edward Glaeser, Basingstoke and Oxford, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, 338 pp., £25.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780230709386 This is a book that was waiting to be written—a popular book on the contemporary urban co...

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232 Citations

Open access
01 Jan 2016-
Abstract: epidemics and pandemics their impacts on human history is available in our book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly. Our books collection saves in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Merely said, the epidemics and pandemics their impacts on human history is universally compatible with any devices to read.

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48 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/GERE.12373
Dana Cuff1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In 1961, the New York Times published a review of Jane Jacobs’ recently released The Death and Life of Great American Cities. In it, the prescient reviewer (an MIT urban studies professor) mused th...

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46 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5209/ARIS.71624
Abstract: espanolEste articulo examina los Grandes Proyectos Culturales (GPC) como un elemento del proceso de desarrollo de las ciudades, considerandolos como un fenomeno global en lugar de analizar cada caso de forma independiente. El estudio esta centrado en Exposiciones Mundiales e Internacionales, Exposiciones de Horticultura, Juegos Olimpicos y Capitales Europeas de la Cultura. La investigacion abarco 183 GCP organizados desde el siglo XIX hasta principios del siglo XXI en todo el mundo. El estudio definio la influencia que los diferentes Grandes Proyectos Culturales han tenido en la estructura de la ciudad y el patrimonio urbano, asi como el desarrollo distintivo de cada tipo de GPC. La aportacion de este articulo consta en la definicon del potencial de los cuatro tipos principales de GPC para el desarrollo urbano multidimensional y su impacto diversificado en las transformaciones de las ciudades modernas, junto con la identificacion de posibles amenazas, beneficios y oportunidades de desarrollo relacionados con diferentes tipos de GPC. EnglishThis study examines Great Cultural Projects (GCPs) as an element of the developmental process of cities. For this study, GCPs are regarded as a global phenomenon rather than cases that must be analyzed independently. The study focused on four types of GCPs: world and international exhibitions, horticultural exhibitions, Olympic Games, and the European Capitals of Culture. The research sample comprised 183 GCPs globally, organized between the middle of the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st century. The study analyzed the influence of different GCPs on city structure and urban heritage and focused on the distinctive development of each GCP type. The study’s novelty lies in recognition of the four main types of GCPs’ potential for multidimensional urban development and their diversified impact on the transformation of modern cities, along with the identification of potential threats, benefits, and development opportunities related to different GCP types.

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4 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S44147-021-00011-1
Abstract: The debate about polycentricity and subordinacy has always been a critical topic that planners, economists, and socialists argued about for centuries. The idea of concentricity vs decentralization has affected all life metabolic activities. Urban structure has always been declared to be the key factor that affects life metabolism significantly. However, after the pandemic COVID-19, the planning strategies have changed dramatically. The main purpose is to investigate the most appropriate urbanization approach that achieves the best development results. The research methodology is to define and measure the fabric independency as an approach to estimate its self-sufficiency that enables it to stand in front of the pandemic challenges at different circumstances. The paper uses the fabric diversity index as a sensitive indicator of independency and polycentricity of the urban structure. The main conclusion for this paper is that independent polycentric urban agglomerations that are strongly linked achieve much better development results than subordinate cities depending on the main core city. The data used for the analysis are extracted from the Urban Atlas developed by the European Environmental Agency in addition to the UN-Habitat annual report. All calculations, analyses, and deductions are exclusively carried by the author. © 2021, The Author(s).

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Topics: Polycentricity (58%), Urban structure (57%), Urbanization (53%) ... read more


35 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JARE.2020.03.005
Abstract: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The intermediate source of origin and transfer to humans is not known, however, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed widely. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulted in clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize and comparatively analyze the emergence and pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection and previous human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We also discuss the approaches for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to cope with this viral outbreak.

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1,749 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABB8001
Juanjuan Zhang1, Maria Litvinova2, Yuxia Liang1, Yan Wang1  +9 moreInstitutions (6)
29 Apr 2020-Science
Abstract: Intense nonpharmaceutical interventions were put in place in China to stop transmission of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As transmission intensifies in other countries, the interplay between age, contact patterns, social distancing, susceptibility to infection, and COVID-19 dynamics remains unclear. To answer these questions, we analyze contact survey data for Wuhan and Shanghai before and during the outbreak and contact-tracing information from Hunan province. Daily contacts were reduced seven- to eightfold during the COVID-19 social distancing period, with most interactions restricted to the household. We find that children 0 to 14 years of age are less susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than adults 15 to 64 years of age (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.49), whereas individuals more than 65 years of age are more susceptible to infection (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.92). Based on these data, we built a transmission model to study the impact of social distancing and school closure on transmission. We find that social distancing alone, as implemented in China during the outbreak, is sufficient to control COVID-19. Although proactive school closures cannot interrupt transmission on their own, they can reduce peak incidence by 40 to 60% and delay the epidemic.

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690 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69895-4
23 Dec 2006-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background The threat of an avian influenza pandemic is causing widespread public concern and health policy response, especially in high-income countries. Our aim was to use high-quality vital registration data gathered during the 1918–20 pandemic to estimate global mortality should such a pandemic occur today. Methods We identified all countries with high-quality vital registration data for the 1918–20 pandemic and used these data to calculate excess mortality. We developed ordinary least squares regression models that related excess mortality to per-head income and absolute latitude and used these models to estimate mortality had there been an influenza pandemic in 2004. Findings Excess mortality data show that, even in 1918–20, population mortality varied over 30-fold across countries. Per-head income explained a large fraction of this variation in mortality. Extrapolation of 1918–20 mortality rates to the worldwide population of 2004 indicates that an estimated 62 million people (10th–90th percentile range 51 million–81 million) would be killed by a similar influenza pandemic; 96% (95% CI 95–98) of these deaths would occur in the developing world. If this mortality were concentrated in a single year, it would increase global mortality by 114%. Interpretation This analysis of the empirical record of the 1918–20 pandemic provides a plausible upper bound on pandemic mortality. Most deaths will occur in poor countries—ie, in societies whose scarce health resources are already stretched by existing health priorities.

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Topics: Mortality rate (56%), Pandemic (56%), Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (54%) ... read more

534 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3201/EID1408.071313
John F. Brundage1, G. Dennis ShanksInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Deaths during the 1918–19 influenza pandemic have been attributed to a hypervirulent influenza strain. Hence, preparations for the next pandemic focus almost exclusively on vaccine prevention and antiviral treatment for infections with a novel influenza strain. However, we hypothesize that infections with the pandemic strain generally caused self-limited (rarely fatal) illnesses that enabled colonizing strains of bacteria to produce highly lethal pneumonias. This sequential-infection hypothesis is consistent with characteristics of the 1918–19 pandemic, contemporaneous expert opinion, and current knowledge regarding the pathophysiologic effects of influenza viruses and their interactions with respiratory bacteria. This hypothesis suggests opportunities for prevention and treatment during the next pandemic (e.g., with bacterial vaccines and antimicrobial drugs), particularly if a pandemic strain–specific vaccine is unavailable or inaccessible to isolated, crowded, or medically underserved populations.

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Topics: Human mortality from H5N1 (74%), Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (65%), Bacterial vaccine (60%) ... read more

329 Citations

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