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The PASCAL Visual Object Classes Challenge

01 Jan 2006-pp 117-176
About: The article was published on 2006-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 3012 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Pascal (programming language).
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) as mentioned in this paper is a benchmark in object category classification and detection on hundreds of object categories and millions of images, which has been run annually from 2010 to present, attracting participation from more than fifty institutions.
Abstract: The ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge is a benchmark in object category classification and detection on hundreds of object categories and millions of images. The challenge has been run annually from 2010 to present, attracting participation from more than fifty institutions. This paper describes the creation of this benchmark dataset and the advances in object recognition that have been possible as a result. We discuss the challenges of collecting large-scale ground truth annotation, highlight key breakthroughs in categorical object recognition, provide a detailed analysis of the current state of the field of large-scale image classification and object detection, and compare the state-of-the-art computer vision accuracy with human accuracy. We conclude with lessons learned in the 5 years of the challenge, and propose future directions and improvements.

30,811 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: Faster R-CNN as discussed by the authors proposes a Region Proposal Network (RPN) to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-NN for detection.
Abstract: State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet and Fast R-CNN have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. The RPN is trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. We further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutional features---using the recently popular terminology of neural networks with 'attention' mechanisms, the RPN component tells the unified network where to look. For the very deep VGG-16 model, our detection system has a frame rate of 5fps (including all steps) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007, 2012, and MS COCO datasets with only 300 proposals per image. In ILSVRC and COCO 2015 competitions, Faster R-CNN and RPN are the foundations of the 1st-place winning entries in several tracks. Code has been made publicly available.

23,183 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art in evaluated methods for both classification and detection are reviewed, whether the methods are statistically different, what they are learning from the images, and what the methods find easy or confuse.
Abstract: The Pascal Visual Object Classes (VOC) challenge is a benchmark in visual object category recognition and detection, providing the vision and machine learning communities with a standard dataset of images and annotation, and standard evaluation procedures. Organised annually from 2005 to present, the challenge and its associated dataset has become accepted as the benchmark for object detection. This paper describes the dataset and evaluation procedure. We review the state-of-the-art in evaluated methods for both classification and detection, analyse whether the methods are statistically different, what they are learning from the images (e.g. the object or its context), and what the methods find easy or confuse. The paper concludes with lessons learnt in the three year history of the challenge, and proposes directions for future improvement and extension.

15,935 citations


Cites background or methods from "The PASCAL Visual Object Classes Ch..."

  • ...The an- notation guidelines (Winn and Everingham 2007) provided guidance to annotators on which images to annotate – es- sentially everything which could be annotated with confidence....

    [...]

  • ...The full guidelines (Winn and Everingham 2007) are available on the WWW....

    [...]

  • ...…were considered for annotation, being either annotated or discarded as unsuitable for annotation e.g. containing no instances of the20 object classes, according to the annotation guidelines (Winn 6 and Everingham 2007), or being impossible to annotate correctly and completely with confidence....

    [...]

  • ...Annotators were also provided with detailed guidelines to ensure consistent segmentation (Winn and Everingham 2007)....

    [...]

Proceedings ArticleDOI
16 Jun 2012
TL;DR: The autonomous driving platform is used to develop novel challenging benchmarks for the tasks of stereo, optical flow, visual odometry/SLAM and 3D object detection, revealing that methods ranking high on established datasets such as Middlebury perform below average when being moved outside the laboratory to the real world.
Abstract: Today, visual recognition systems are still rarely employed in robotics applications. Perhaps one of the main reasons for this is the lack of demanding benchmarks that mimic such scenarios. In this paper, we take advantage of our autonomous driving platform to develop novel challenging benchmarks for the tasks of stereo, optical flow, visual odometry/SLAM and 3D object detection. Our recording platform is equipped with four high resolution video cameras, a Velodyne laser scanner and a state-of-the-art localization system. Our benchmarks comprise 389 stereo and optical flow image pairs, stereo visual odometry sequences of 39.2 km length, and more than 200k 3D object annotations captured in cluttered scenarios (up to 15 cars and 30 pedestrians are visible per image). Results from state-of-the-art algorithms reveal that methods ranking high on established datasets such as Middlebury perform below average when being moved outside the laboratory to the real world. Our goal is to reduce this bias by providing challenging benchmarks with novel difficulties to the computer vision community. Our benchmarks are available online at: www.cvlibs.net/datasets/kitti

11,283 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Our benchmarks are available online at: www.cvlibs.net/datasets/kitti...

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An object detection system based on mixtures of multiscale deformable part models that is able to represent highly variable object classes and achieves state-of-the-art results in the PASCAL object detection challenges is described.
Abstract: We describe an object detection system based on mixtures of multiscale deformable part models. Our system is able to represent highly variable object classes and achieves state-of-the-art results in the PASCAL object detection challenges. While deformable part models have become quite popular, their value had not been demonstrated on difficult benchmarks such as the PASCAL data sets. Our system relies on new methods for discriminative training with partially labeled data. We combine a margin-sensitive approach for data-mining hard negative examples with a formalism we call latent SVM. A latent SVM is a reformulation of MI--SVM in terms of latent variables. A latent SVM is semiconvex, and the training problem becomes convex once latent information is specified for the positive examples. This leads to an iterative training algorithm that alternates between fixing latent values for positive examples and optimizing the latent SVM objective function.

10,501 citations


Cites background from "The PASCAL Visual Object Classes Ch..."

  • ...Index Terms—Object recognition, deformable models, pictorial structures, discriminative training, latent SVM. Ç...

    [...]

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) as mentioned in this paper is a benchmark in object category classification and detection on hundreds of object categories and millions of images, which has been run annually from 2010 to present, attracting participation from more than fifty institutions.
Abstract: The ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge is a benchmark in object category classification and detection on hundreds of object categories and millions of images. The challenge has been run annually from 2010 to present, attracting participation from more than fifty institutions. This paper describes the creation of this benchmark dataset and the advances in object recognition that have been possible as a result. We discuss the challenges of collecting large-scale ground truth annotation, highlight key breakthroughs in categorical object recognition, provide a detailed analysis of the current state of the field of large-scale image classification and object detection, and compare the state-of-the-art computer vision accuracy with human accuracy. We conclude with lessons learned in the 5 years of the challenge, and propose future directions and improvements.

30,811 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work introduces a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals and further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutionAL features.
Abstract: State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet [1] and Fast R-CNN [2] have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. The RPN is trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. We further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutional features—using the recently popular terminology of neural networks with ’attention’ mechanisms, the RPN component tells the unified network where to look. For the very deep VGG-16 model [3] , our detection system has a frame rate of 5 fps ( including all steps ) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007, 2012, and MS COCO datasets with only 300 proposals per image. In ILSVRC and COCO 2015 competitions, Faster R-CNN and RPN are the foundations of the 1st-place winning entries in several tracks. Code has been made publicly available.

26,458 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art in evaluated methods for both classification and detection are reviewed, whether the methods are statistically different, what they are learning from the images, and what the methods find easy or confuse.
Abstract: The Pascal Visual Object Classes (VOC) challenge is a benchmark in visual object category recognition and detection, providing the vision and machine learning communities with a standard dataset of images and annotation, and standard evaluation procedures. Organised annually from 2005 to present, the challenge and its associated dataset has become accepted as the benchmark for object detection. This paper describes the dataset and evaluation procedure. We review the state-of-the-art in evaluated methods for both classification and detection, analyse whether the methods are statistically different, what they are learning from the images (e.g. the object or its context), and what the methods find easy or confuse. The paper concludes with lessons learnt in the three year history of the challenge, and proposes directions for future improvement and extension.

15,935 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
16 Jun 2012
TL;DR: The autonomous driving platform is used to develop novel challenging benchmarks for the tasks of stereo, optical flow, visual odometry/SLAM and 3D object detection, revealing that methods ranking high on established datasets such as Middlebury perform below average when being moved outside the laboratory to the real world.
Abstract: Today, visual recognition systems are still rarely employed in robotics applications. Perhaps one of the main reasons for this is the lack of demanding benchmarks that mimic such scenarios. In this paper, we take advantage of our autonomous driving platform to develop novel challenging benchmarks for the tasks of stereo, optical flow, visual odometry/SLAM and 3D object detection. Our recording platform is equipped with four high resolution video cameras, a Velodyne laser scanner and a state-of-the-art localization system. Our benchmarks comprise 389 stereo and optical flow image pairs, stereo visual odometry sequences of 39.2 km length, and more than 200k 3D object annotations captured in cluttered scenarios (up to 15 cars and 30 pedestrians are visible per image). Results from state-of-the-art algorithms reveal that methods ranking high on established datasets such as Middlebury perform below average when being moved outside the laboratory to the real world. Our goal is to reduce this bias by providing challenging benchmarks with novel difficulties to the computer vision community. Our benchmarks are available online at: www.cvlibs.net/datasets/kitti

11,283 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An object detection system based on mixtures of multiscale deformable part models that is able to represent highly variable object classes and achieves state-of-the-art results in the PASCAL object detection challenges is described.
Abstract: We describe an object detection system based on mixtures of multiscale deformable part models. Our system is able to represent highly variable object classes and achieves state-of-the-art results in the PASCAL object detection challenges. While deformable part models have become quite popular, their value had not been demonstrated on difficult benchmarks such as the PASCAL data sets. Our system relies on new methods for discriminative training with partially labeled data. We combine a margin-sensitive approach for data-mining hard negative examples with a formalism we call latent SVM. A latent SVM is a reformulation of MI--SVM in terms of latent variables. A latent SVM is semiconvex, and the training problem becomes convex once latent information is specified for the positive examples. This leads to an iterative training algorithm that alternates between fixing latent values for positive examples and optimizing the latent SVM objective function.

10,501 citations