The Police and the Public in Australia and New Zealand and the Democratic Policeman
01 Jan 1970-Australian Quarterly (JSTOR)-Vol. 42, Iss: 3, pp 125
About: This article is published in Australian Quarterly.The article was published on 1970-01-01. It has received 1 citations till now.
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: The authors argue that the impact of convictism on colonial crime and mores was greatly exaggerated and that crime was not simply grafted on to the colony, but reflected various concerns and interests, the conditions of a relatively affluent frontier community, and perhaps most importantly, an intense concern with respectability.
Abstract: As a receptacle for British convicts, New South Wales was popularly portrayed as a 'vicious' society. Crime and vice were considered the inevitable concomitants of a transported 'criminal class' and convict 'contamination'. The following study, focussing on the mid-nineteenth century, argues that the impact of convictism on colonial crime and mores was greatly exaggerated. Official criminal statistics, reportage in the press, as well as other contemporary evidence, all present in some ways a distorted view of crime. Crime was not simply grafted on to the colony, but reflected various concerns and interests, the conditions of a relatively affluent frontier community, and perhaps most importantly, an intense concern with respectability. The community's transformation from a penal colony was marked not only by a decreasing proportion of convicts in the population, but a reorientation in standards of public conduct, new fears concerning public order, and an obsessional interest in repudiating the convict stain.
TL;DR: The sociological analysis of law in the Australian social order has been overwhelmingly carried out by lawyers as mentioned in this paper, and this has resulted in the stifling of a sociology of law, at least in the sense of a body of data expressly articulated with one or other of the varieties of sociological theory.
Abstract: It is overwhelmingly the case that the analysis of law in the Australian social order has been, and still is, carried out by lawyers. Moreover, a considerable proportion of this research originates from agencies either dominated directly by the legal profession (for example, law foundations) or by the ideologies of law (for example, law faculties). As will become clear, this has not meant that such work is to be dismissed as universally conservative and legalistic. However, the situation has resulted in the stifling of a sociology of law in Australia, at least in the sense of a body of data expressly articulated with one or other of the varieties of sociological theory. In its place has developed a strong tradition of empiricist research geared to issues of legal policy such as correctionalism and law reform. Only in the past few years has there been any significant challenge to this atheoretical mode, and while the current trends are promising the sociology of law still occupies a fairly marginal role in the field of legal studies. In this paper an attempt will be made to account for this situation in terms of the broader political and intellectual trends in post-war Australia, and to outline the principal problematics which have emerged over the past twenty years.
TL;DR: The first European settlement in Australia in 1788 was essentially for the purpose of establishing a penal colony to ease the crowding of English prisons, and very little of this could be described as criminological in its focus.
Abstract: The first European settlement in Australia in 1788 was essentially for the purpose of establishing a penal colony to ease the crowding of English prisons. With such a criminologically relevant beginning, it might have been expected that the systematic study of crime and criminals would have been established early in the development of the nation, but such was not to be the case. Only in very recent years has there been any detailed study of Australia's convict ancestry, and very little of this could be described as criminological in its focus. An exception is the biography of an early penal reformer, Alexander Maconochie, by the late Sir John Barry (1958) of the Supreme Court of Victoria. This work is widely regarded as the first serious contribution to Australian criminology, but it was preceded by The Habitual Criminal (Morris 1951) and some studies of Australian police systems. The dearth of criminological talent until recent years is probably best illustrated by the fact that the first two editions of a monumental tome on all aspects of Australian society (Davies and Encel 1965/1970) made no mention of crime, delinquency, prisons, or criminal justice. Even today Australia cannot claim to have an especially large community of scholars engaged in teaching or research in criminology, though there has been significant growth in the past twenty or thirty years. In the last five years, however, there has been a slight decline in the strength of most research centers. This growth and subsequent decline are sketched in this essay. Section I describes the major research institutions, Section II assesses the extent of governmental influence
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: Recommendations this paper offers may well strengthen SBC Program qualities and help overcome the challenges it confronts from within the Police Force.
Abstract: School Based Policing, a unique Northern Territory Program was established in 1985. It has had a profound and lasting impact upon youth in Territory Schools. Its focus has been toward proactive policing A major outcome has been the development of a positive policing profile. The School Based Constable Program has been a real winner. Perceptions held of it within other arms of the Police Department are surprisingly negative. Recommendations this paper offers may well strengthen SBC Program qualities and help overcome the challenges it confronts from within the Police Force. The study takes account of issues embodied in this statement of intent. • To provide topical background and a 'frame of reference' within which the project is developed. • To reveal what the School Based Constable Program has achieved, and why it is under pressure. • To consider the history of the SBC Program in the NT, with especial reference to the Darwin Area. • To study the impact and contribution of the scheme's founders, both Police Department and Education Department personnel.
TL;DR: The Break the Silence that Silences: A time of challenge and change in Aboriginal/police relations, the 1960s and 1970s as mentioned in this paper was a seminal work in the field of criminal justice.
Abstract: (1995). Breaking the Silence that Silences: A time of challenge and change in Aboriginal/police relations, the 1960s and 1970s. Current Issues in Criminal Justice: Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 44-59.
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