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Journal ArticleDOI

The politics of language: the impact of language legislation on French- and English-speaking citizens of Quebec

01 Jan 1995-International Journal of the Sociology of Language (De Gruyter)-Vol. 116, Iss: 116, pp 81-98
TL;DR: The authors traces the history of French-English conflict in Quebec from the British conquest of New France in 1795 to the present and highlights the longlasting cultural and economic deprivation of the French resulted in a movement for change with the development ofan urban intellectual-managerial class, and a growing sense of ethnic pride.
Abstract: This paper traces the history of French-English conflict in Quebec from the British conquest of New France in 1795 to the present. The long-lasting cultural and economic deprivation ofthe French resulted in a movementfor change with the development ofan urban intellectual-managerial class, and a growing sense of ethnic pride. This is intensified by the fear that the French language and culture will be overwhelmed by the predominantly English-speaking surrounding Community. Thepeaceful transference of economic power and language dominance from the English- to the Frenchspeaking Community was facilitated by the electoral power of the French Community. Of growing concern is the greater need for English-language proficiency in the French-speaking Community as Quebec industry enters the international marketplace.
Citations
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Book
05 May 2005
TL;DR: In this article, the notions of micro-choices and macrochoices of language choice are discussed, including the social stratification as a factor of linguistic choice, gender speech, and communication across generations.
Abstract: 1 Introduction: notions of language Part I Micro-choices: 2 Standard and dialect: social stratification as a factor of linguistic choice 3 Gendered speech: sex as a factor of linguistic choice 4 Communicating across generations: age as a factor of linguistic choice 5 Choice and change 6 Politeness: cultural dimensions of linguistic choice Part II Macro-choices: 7 Code-switching: linguistic choices across language boundaries 8 Diglossia and bilingualism: functional restrictions on language choice 9 Language spread, shift and maintenance: how groups choose their language 10 Language and identity: individual, social, national 11 Language planning: communication demands, public choice, utility 12 Select letters: a major divide 13 The language of choice 14 Research ethics

166 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that when ethnic or minority groups perceive themselves to be under linguistic pressures to conform to the dominant culture and language, they will be less motivated to acculturate and will have increased resentment toward the dominant cultures.
Abstract: This study asserts that when ethnic or minority groups perceive themselves to be under linguistic pressures to conform to the dominant culture and language, they will be less motivated to acculturate to the dominant culture and will have increased resentment toward the dominant culture. A total of 567 first-, second-, and third-generation French Muslims were surveyed to ascertain the Muslim community's perception of French language policies. Aside from revealing a decreased motivation to acculturate and increased resentment toward the dominant culture, the study's results demonstrate the importance of ethnolinguistic vitality in understanding the community's overall refusal to completely adapt to the dominant French culture.

43 citations


Cites background from "The politics of language: the impac..."

  • ...This resentment was found among Francophones (the French-speaking population) and among Chinese immigrants in Québec (Charland, 1987; Croucher, 2003; Dickinson & Young, 2003; Endleman, 1995)....

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  • ...This resentment was found among Francophones (the French-speaking population) and among Chinese immigrants in Québec (Charland, 1987; Croucher, 2003; Dickinson & Young, 2003; Endleman, 1995)....

    [...]

  • ...Political commentators and politicians contribute the closeness of this public decision to growing resentment toward the English-speaking Canadian majority as a response to recent linguistic mandates and policies since an earlier separatist referendum in 1980 (Bagnall, 1995; Endleman, 1995; Sklar, 1999)....

    [...]

  • ...…commentators and politicians contribute the closeness of this public decision to growing resentment toward the English-speaking Canadian majority as a response to recent linguistic mandates and policies since an earlier separatist referendum in 1980 (Bagnall, 1995; Endleman, 1995; Sklar, 1999)....

    [...]

  • ...The referendum, to separate from Canada, in Québec almost passed in 1995, with 49.4% voting to separate from Canada and 50.6% voting to stay with Canada....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a multi-dimensional approach to policy failure is presented to identify separate aspects of failure within a single policy or program, such as failure to meet objectives, claims of negative distributional outcomes and negative electoral outcomes attributed to specific policy decisions.
Abstract: Discussions of failure in public policy have been hampered by a lack of consensus on a definition of the term ‘failure’. It can be shown that arguments relating to policy failure tend to conflate forms of failure that are actually discrete, such as failure to meet objectives, claims of negative distributional outcomes and negative electoral outcomes attributed to specific policy decisions. This article attempts to unify and clarify the discourse on policy failure by presenting a multi-dimensional approach that can identify separate aspects of failure within a single policy or program. This multi-dimensional approach to policy failure is then be applied to climate change policy in Australia, in order to demonstrate how some aspects of a policy can be interpreted as failed while others can simultaneously be interpreted as successful, even by the same observer. As this example illustrates, global pronouncements of a public policy as a ‘success’ or ‘failure’ should be avoided in favour of more precise evaluat...

36 citations


Cites background from "The politics of language: the impac..."

  • ...…the majority French-speaking population by improving their access tohigh-paying employment, but these laws also resulted in a reduction of employment opportunities, feelings of alienation, andmassivewaves of emigration among the resident minority English-speaking community (Endleman, 1995)....

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  • ...In another example, the Canadian province of Québec’s preferential language laws may have benefited the majority French-speaking population by improving their access tohigh-paying employment, but these laws also resulted in a reduction of employment opportunities, feelings of alienation, andmassivewaves of emigration among the resident minority English-speaking community (Endleman, 1995)....

    [...]

Journal Article
TL;DR: The authors examined language policy and planning attempts in Nigeria since independence to the present and advocated a government's strategy of governance, which allows for greater decentralization of power and which recognizes and protects the linguistic rights of all Nigerians.
Abstract: Language policies and planning in Nigeria have hitherto not been realistically responsive to the linguistic diversity in the country. Rather, they have succeeded in accentuating ethnic consciousness and vitality with language as a symbol. For example, Nigeria is now polarized along two linguistic lines – linguistic majority and linguistic minority. Our standpoint in this paper is that a situation such as this is inimical to our emerging democracy and our aspiration for national development. The paper, therefore, will examine language policy and planning attempts in Nigeria since independence to the present. Against the backdrop of a case study of language planning in a country like Canada, with similar linguistic problems, this paper advocates a government’s strategy of governance, which allows for greater decentralization of power and which recognizes and protects the linguistic rights of all Nigerians.

28 citations


Cites background from "The politics of language: the impac..."

  • ...According to Endleman (1995), the most current chapter in this long-lasting struggle over language rights and language dominance may be said to have begun in 1968 in Saint-Leonard, a suburb of Montreal....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: PCT was demonstrated to cross successfully from a Third to a First World culture, and established potential as a method to facilitate group conflict resolution and for the promotion of pluralistic civil societies.
Abstract: The use of psychohistoriographic cultural therapy (PCT) developed in Jamaica is described in the context of two workshops in Montreal. PCT is a form of group intervention that seeks to elicit and clarify the "psychic centrality" of a group. Psychic centrality refers to a sense of psychological containment or organization of diverse individual points of view through creating a historical map of collective experience. In PCT, this collective map is constructed and techniques borrowed from creative arts therapies are used to develop a performance. This performance provides additional containment and fosters a group process that can contain collective conflicts. The performance can also be used to engage an audience, working to contain conflict while representing diverse perspectives within the group. Factors that may contribute to the effectiveness of PCT and those that may derail the process are identified through the systematic comparison of the two workshops. PCT was demonstrated to cross successfully from a Third to a First World culture, and established potential as a method to facilitate group conflict resolution and for the promotion of pluralistic civil societies.

13 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: Language dominance language diversity ethnic group, nation and state Great Britain Great Britain France and Spain promoting English and French Spanish and French in sub-Saharan Africa competition from Arabic and Swahili Belgium, Switzerland and Canada old states, new pressures as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Language dominance language diversity ethnic group, nation and state Great Britain France and Spain promoting English and French English and French in sub-Saharan Africa competition from Arabic and Swahili Belgium, Switzerland, and Canada old states, new pressures.

142 citations

Book
01 Jan 1981
TL;DR: In this paper, a theory of assimilation and dissimilation towards a theory for assimilation is proposed, which is based on the theory of dissimilation and assimilation in ethnic and racial studies.
Abstract: (1981). Toward a theory of assimilation and dissimilation. Ethnic and Racial Studies: Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 249-264.

132 citations

Book
01 Jan 1991
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a different vision of the english in quebec in the 1990s book, which they refer to as a book that will give wellness for all people from many societies.
Abstract: Where you can find the a different vision the english in quebec in the 1990s easily? Is it in the book store? On-line book store? are you sure? Keep in mind that you will find the book in this site. This book is very referred for you because it gives not only the experience but also lesson. The lessons are very valuable to serve for you, that's not about who are reading this a different vision the english in quebec in the 1990s book. It is about this book that will give wellness for all people from many societies.

14 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1984
TL;DR: The social implications of bilingual education are discussed in this article, where the authors provide an account of the important features of language education and national policy and present a case study of the linguistic situation in Montreal.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the social implications of bilingual education. The locus of bilingual schooling is the community. Bilingual education might be a matter of policy, a matter of need, or a matter of desire. Policy depends on principles, such as language parity, territoriality, freedom of choice, and the like. The need for bilingual schooling might be the consequence of differences in language status and language standardization. A desire for bilingual schooling might be the result of a belief that one's children might have certain economic or social advantages if they become fluent in a certain language. When one has identified the linguistic pattern and the language distribution of a community, he can consider the social implications of a national language policy, its language objectives, type of control, implementation at the level of the community, and the effects on the local social environment. The chapter provides an account of the important features of language education and national policy. It discusses national and regional control over educational priorities. It also presents a case study of the linguistic situation in Montreal.

12 citations