03 Mar 2021
Abstract: This article analyses the attitude of the French “public law” courts towards the basic EU law principles. It is argued that though the Conseil d’Etat has, in the past, been reluctant to welcome the principle of supremacy, the recent jurisprudence demonstrates that it has drastically changed its stance and seeks, instead, appeasement and judicial dialogue with the ECJ. The Conseil constitutionnel with its doctrine of “reserve de constitutionnalite” has clearly influenced the administrative courts. As to the general principles of Community law, it appears that though administrative case law has now clearly recognised their reception in matters falling within the scope of Community law, the Council of State is disinclined to accept their spill-over within purely internal matters.
Abstract: The paper examines the relationship between the severe economic crisis facing Greece and the country’s social protection system, arguing that this relationship is ambivalent. On one level, the welfare state itself has contributed in a far from trivial way to the fiscal crisis of the state, with its various failures including huge deficits in key programmes such as pensions and health. On a second level, the crisis and the measures to counter it deprive the welfare state of resources, while at the same time setting in motion sweeping changes. On a third level, social protection can help cope with the consequences of the crisis, but enhancing its capacity to do so will require considerable reconfiguration and proper funding of social safety nets. The paper concludes by discussing the prospects for a revival of welfare state building in Greece in the current harsh climate.
Abstract: This article analyses how the European Union's response to the euro-crisis has altered the constitutional balance upon which its stability is based. It argues that the stability and legitimacy of any political system requires the structural incorporation of individual and political self-determination. In the context of the EU, this requirement is met through the idea of constitutional balance, with ‘substantive’, ‘institutional’ and ‘spatial’ dimensions. Analysing reforms to EU law and institutional structure in the wake of the crisis – such as the establishment of the ESM, the growing influence of the European Council and the creation of a stand-alone Fiscal Compact – it is argued that recent reforms are likely to have a lasting impact on the ability of the EU to mediate conflicting interests in all three areas. By undermining its constitutional balance, the response to the crisis is likely to dampen the long-term stability and legitimacy of the EU project.
17 Oct 2010
Abstract: 1. Europeanizing Social Inclusion-Theory Concepts and Methods 2. Policy Coordination in the EU 3. Social Policy Coordination and the Lisbon Strategy 4. Relaunching the Lisbon Strategy and the Streamlining of Policy Coordination 5. Europeanization Through Policy Coordination 6. Economic Constitutionalism and Social Policy Coordination 7. From Lisbon to Lisbon-Europeanization Through Constitutionalism 8. Strengthening the Governance of Social Inclusion
Abstract: The present contribution supports the contention that general principles of EU law do not operate as an unstoppable centripetal force at the service of an activist judiciary. Quite the contrary, when having recourse to general principles, the ECJ strives to preserve the vertical and horizontal allocation of powers sought by the authors of the Treaties. Horizontally, the ECJ distinguishes between matters pertaining to the province of constitutional law and those which are subject to legislative discretion. Stated differently, general principles of EU law are applied without encroaching upon the competence of the EU legislature. Vertically, the ECJ is respectful of the constitutional traditions of the Member States but not to the extent of foregoing the basic constitutional tenets of the Union. General principles seek to create a �common constitutional space� where EU and national law engage in a dynamic dialogue which gives rise to a mutual influence between the two levels of governance. Hence, as instruments of constitutional dialogue, general principles facilitate the constant renewal of the EU legal order, epitomising the �EU�s living constitution�. The article examines the horizontal direct effect of general principles, paying attention to the gap-filling function of general principles, and their role in consistent interpretation and as grounds for review, in a situation of constitutional pluralism.
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