The Power of Feedback
01 Mar 2007-Review of Educational Research (Sage Publications)-Vol. 77, Iss: 1, pp 81-112
TL;DR: This paper provided a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviewed the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement, and suggested ways in which feedback can be used to enhance its effectiveness in classrooms.
Abstract: Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Its power is frequently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement. This evidence shows that although feedback is among the major influences, the type of feedback and the way it is given can be differentially effective. A model of feedback is then proposed that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it effective, and some typically thorny issues are discussed, including the timing of feedback and the effects of positive and negative feedback. Finally, this analysis is used to suggest ways in which feedback can be used to enhance its effectiveness in classrooms.
TL;DR: The authors describe the second wave of research, which has involved the development of online measures of self-regulatory processes and motivational feelings or beliefs regarding learning in authentic contexts, including computer traces, think-aloud protocols, diaries of studying, direct observation, and microanalyses.
Abstract: The topic of how students become self-regulated as learners has attracted researchers for decades. Initial attempts to measure self-regulated learning (SRL) using questionnaires and interviews were successful in demonstrating significant predictions of students’ academic outcomes. The present article describes the second wave of research, which has involved the development of online measures of self-regulatory processes and motivational feelings or beliefs regarding learning in authentic contexts. These innovative methods include computer traces, think-aloud protocols, diaries of studying, direct observation, and microanalyses. Although still in the formative stage of development, these online measures are providing valuable new information regarding the causal impact of SRL processes as well as raising new questions for future study.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a framework for defining and delimiting formative assessment within broader theories of pedagogy, which can also unify the diverse set of practices which have been described as formative.
Abstract: Whilst many definitions of formative assessment have been offered, there is no clear rationale to define and delimit it within broader theories of pedagogy. This paper aims to offer such a rationale, within a framework which can also unify the diverse set of practices which have been described as formative. The analysis is used to relate formative assessment both to other pedagogic initiatives, notably cognitive acceleration and dynamic assessment, and to some of the existing literature on models of self-regulated learning and on classroom discourse. This framework should indicate potentially fruitful lines for further enquiry, whilst at the same time opening up new ways of helping teachers to implement formative practices more effectively.
TL;DR: Results suggest games show higher learning gains than simulations and virtual worlds, and for simulation studies, elaborate explanation type feedback is more suitable for declarative tasks whereas knowledge of correct response is more appropriate for procedural tasks.
Abstract: The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine overall effect as well as the impact of selected instructional design principles in the context of virtual reality technology-based instruction (i.e. games, simulation, virtual worlds) in K-12 or higher education settings. A total of 13 studies (N?=?3081) in the category of games, 29 studies (N?=?2553) in the category of games, and 27 studies (N?=?2798) in the category of virtual worlds were meta-analyzed. The key inclusion criteria were that the study came from K-12 or higher education settings, used experimental or quasi-experimental research designs, and used a learning outcome measure to evaluate the effects of the virtual reality-based instruction.Results suggest games (FEM?=?0.77; REM?=?0.51), simulations (FEM?=?0.38; REM?=?0.41), and virtual worlds (FEM?=?0.36; REM?=?0.41) were effective in improving learning outcome gains. The homogeneity analysis of the effect sizes was statistically significant, indicating that the studies were different from each other. Therefore, we conducted moderator analysis using 13 variables used to code the studies. Key findings included that: games show higher learning gains than simulations and virtual worlds. For simulation studies, elaborate explanation type feedback is more suitable for declarative tasks whereas knowledge of correct response is more appropriate for procedural tasks. Students performance is enhanced when they conduct the game play individually than in a group. In addition, we found an inverse relationship between number of treatment sessions learning gains for games.With regards to the virtual world, we found that if students were repeatedly measured it deteriorates their learning outcome gains. We discuss results to highlight the importance of considering instructional design principles when designing virtual reality-based instruction. A comprehensive review of virtual reality-based instruction research.Analysis of the moderation effects of design features in a virtual environment.Using an advance statistical technique of meta-analysis to study the effects.Virtual reality environment is effective for teaching in K-12 and higher education.Results can be used by instructional designers to design the virtual environments.
15 May 2011
TL;DR: Self-Regulation of learning and performance has been studied extensively in the literature as mentioned in this paper, with a focus on the role of self-regulation in the development of learners' skills and abilities.
Abstract: Contents Historical, Contemporary, and Future Perspectives on Self-Regulated Learning and Performance Dale H. Schunk and Jeffrey A. Greene Section I. Basic Domains of Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance Social Cognitive Theoretical Perspective of Self-Regulation Ellen L. Usher and Dale H. Schunk Cognition and Metacognition Within Self-Regulated Learning Philip H. Winne Developmental Trajectories of Skills and Abilities Relevant for Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance Rick H. Hoyle and Amy L. Dent Motivation and Affect in Self-Regulated Learning: Does Metacognition Play a Role? Anastasia Efklides, Bennett L. Schwartz, and Victoria Brown Self-Regulation, Co-Regulation and Shared Regulation in Collaborative Learning Environments Allyson Hadwin, Sanna Jarvela, and Mariel Miller Section II. Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance in Context Metacognitive Pedagogies in Mathematics Classrooms: From Kindergarten to College and Beyond Zemira R. Mevarech, Lieven Verschaffel, and Erik De Corte Self-Regulated Learning in Reading Keith W. Thiede and Anique B. H. de Bruin Self-Regulation and Writing Steve Graham, Karen R. Harris, Charles MacArthur, and Tanya Santangelo The Self-Regulation of Learning and Conceptual Change in Science: Research, Theory, and Educational Applications Gale M. Sinatra and Gita Taasoobshirazi Using Technology-Rich Environments to Foster Self-Regulated Learning in the Social Studies Eric G. Poitras and Susanne P. Lajoie Self-Regulated Learning in Music Practice and Performance Gary E. McPherson, Peter Miksza, and Paul Evans Self-Regulation in Athletes: A Social Cognitive Perspective Anastasia Kitsantas, Maria Kavussanu, Deborah B. Corbatto, and Pepijn K. C. van de Pol Self-Regulation: An Integral Part of Standards-Based Education Marie C. White and Maria K. DiBenedetto Teachers as Agents in Promoting Students' SRL and Performance: Applications for Teachers' Dual-Role Training Program Bracha Kramarski Section III. Technology and Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance Emerging Classroom Technology: Using Self-Regulation Principles as a Guide for Effective Implementation Daniel C. Moos Understanding and Reasoning About Real-Time Cognitive, Affective, and Metacognitive Processes to Foster Self-Regulation With Advanced Learning Technologies Roger Azevedo, Michelle Taub, and Nicholas V. Mudrick The Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Digital Games John L. Nietfeld Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments Peter Reimann and Maria Bannert Section IV. Methodology and Assessment of Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance Validity and the Use of Self-Report Questionnaires to Assess Self-Regulated Learning Christopher A. Wolters and Sungjun Won Capturing and Modeling Self-Regulated Learning Using Think-Aloud Protocols Jeffrey A. Greene, Victor M. Deekens, Dana Z. Copeland, and Seung Yu Assessing Self-Regulated Learning Using Microanalytic Methods Timothy J. Cleary and Gregory L. Callan Advancing Research and Practice About Self-Regulated Learning: The Promise of In-Depth Case Study Methodologies Deborah L. Butler and Sylvie C. Cartier Examining the Cyclical, Loosely Sequenced, and Contingent Features of Self-Regulated Learning: Trace Data and Their Analysis Matthew L. Bernacki Data Mining Methods for Assessing Self-Regulated Learning Gautam Biswas, Ryan S. Baker, and Luc Paquette Section V. Individual and Group Differences in Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance 26. Calibration of Performance and Academic Delay of Gratification: Individual and Group Differences in Self-Regulation of Learning Peggy P. Chen and Hefer Bembenutty 27. Academic Help Seeking as a Self-Regulated Learning Strategy: Current Issues, Future Directions Stuart A. Karabenick and Eleftheria N. Gonida 28. The Three Faces of Epistemic Thinking in Self-Regulated Learning Krista R. Muis and Cara Singh 29. Advances in Understanding Young Children's Self-Regulation of Learning Nancy E. Perry, Lynda R. Hutchinson, Nikki Yee, and Elina Maatta 30. Self-Regulation: Implications for Individuals With Special Needs Linda H. Mason and Robert Reid 31. Culture and Self-Regulation in Educational Contexts Dennis M. McInerney and Ronnel B. King
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors develop and analyse two models of feedback: the first is based on the origins of the term in the disciplines of engineering and biology, and the second draws on ideas of sustainable assessment.
Abstract: Student feedback is a contentious and confusing issue throughout higher education institutions. This paper develops and analyses two models of feedback: the first is based on the origins of the term in the disciplines of engineering and biology. It positions teachers as the drivers of feedback. The second draws on ideas of sustainable assessment. This positions learners as having a key role in driving learning, and thus generating and soliciting their own feedback. It suggests that the second model equips students beyond the immediate task and does not lead to false expectations that courses cannot deliver. It identifies the importance of curriculum design in creating opportunities for students to develop the capabilities to operate as judges of their own learning.
01 Aug 1975
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the development of Causality Orientations Theory, a theory of personality Influences on Motivation, and its application in information-Processing Theories.
Abstract: I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
TL;DR: The centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism in human agency is discussed in this paper, where the influential role of perceived collective effi- cacy in social change is analyzed, as are the social con- ditions conducive to development of collective inefficacy.
Abstract: This article addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. Self-per- cepts of efficacy influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the perfor- mance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. Different lines of research are reviewed, show- ing that the self-efficacy mechanism may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to ac- count for such diverse phenomena as changes in coping behavior produced by different modes of influence, level of physiological stress reactions, self-regulation of refractory behavior, resignation and despondency to failure experiences, self-debilitating effects of proxy control and illusory inefficaciousness, achievement strivings, growth of intrinsic interest, and career pur- suits. The influential role of perceived collective effi- cacy in social change is analyzed, as are the social con- ditions conducive to development of collective inefficacy. Psychological theorizing and research tend to cen- ter on issues concerning either acquisition of knowledge or execution of response patterns. As a result the processes governing the interrelation- ship between knowledge and action have been largely neglected (Newell, 1978). Some of the re- cent efforts to bridge this gap have been directed at the biomechanics problem—how efferent com- mands of action plans guide the production of ap- propriate response patterns (Stelmach, 1976,1978). Others have approached the matter in terms of algorithmic knowledge, which furnishes guides for executing action sequences (Greeno, 1973; Newell, 1973). ,
•11 Oct 1985
TL;DR: In this paper, models of Human Nature and Casualty are used to model human nature and human health, and a set of self-regulatory mechanisms are proposed. But they do not consider the role of cognitive regulators.
Abstract: 1. Models of Human Nature and Casualty. 2. Observational Learning. 3. Enactive Learning. 4. Social Diffusion and Innovation. 5. Predictive Knowledge and Forethought. 6. Incentive Motivators. 7. Vicarious Motivators. 8. Self-Regulatory Mechanisms. 9. Self-Efficacy. 10. Cognitive Regulators. References. Index.
TL;DR: In this paper, a model is proposed that specifies the conditions under which individuals will become internally motivated to perform effectively on their jobs, focusing on the interaction among three classes of variables: (a) the psychological states of employees that must be present for internally motivated work behavior to develop; (b) the characteristics of jobs that can create these psychological states; and (c) the attributes of individuals that determine how positively a person will respond to a complex and challenging job.
Abstract: A model is proposed that specifies the conditions under which individuals will become internally motivated to perform effectively on their jobs. The model focuses on the interaction among three classes of variables: (a) the psychological states of employees that must be present for internally motivated work behavior to develop; (b) the characteristics of jobs that can create these psychological states; and (c) the attributes of individuals that determine how positively a person will respond to a complex and challenging job. The model was tested for 658 employees who work on 62 different jobs in seven organizations, and results support its validity. A number of special features of the model are discussed (including its use as a basis for the diagnosis of jobs and the evaluation of job redesign projects), and the model is compared to other theories of job design.