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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110159

The psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions associated with severe infections of COVID-19 and other coronaviruses.

02 Mar 2021-Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier)-Vol. 106, pp 110159-110159
Abstract: Introduction It is known that viral infections are epidemiologically prevalent and some of them are harmful to the central nervous system (CNS) due to the development of neuropsychiatric syndromes which affect the cognitive, affective, behavioral and perceptual domains. Objective To carry out a comprehensive analysis of the psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions of COVID-19 based on epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical foundations observed in previous and recent pandemic events, and also to make a proposition about effective therapeutic interventions to help tackle this serious public health problem, more specifically in its neuropsychiatric developments. Method This current literature review has utilized literature reserves and scientific search engines MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. The search terms included, “SARS-CoV-2”, “etiology,” “psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions”, “severe infections” “COVID-19”. Specific choices of unique papers from each of the searches were identified. The inclusion criteria were relevance and availability of full-text. Papers were excluded on the basis of relevance and non-availability of full-text. Papers were identified in the general literature reserve as pertinent to the search terms. Results The main psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions analyzed were depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, psychosis, nonspecific neurological symptoms, delirium, cerebrovascular complications, encephalopathies, neuromuscular disorders, anosmia and ageusia. Conclusion The psychiatric and neuropsychiatric symptoms of acute respiratory syndromes can appear during or after the infectious stage. Among the risk factors pointed out for such effects are the female gender, health professionals, presence of avascular necrosis and distressing pain.

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Open access
01 Jan 2016-
Abstract: Thank you for reading review of pathophysiology. As you may know, people have look hundreds times for their favorite readings like this review of pathophysiology, but end up in infectious downloads. Rather than enjoying a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they cope with some malicious bugs inside their desktop computer. review of pathophysiology is available in our book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our digital library saves in multiple countries, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the review of pathophysiology is universally compatible with any devices to read.

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20 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENCEP.2021.08.002
Hervé Javelot1, C. Straczek2, C. Straczek3, G Meyer  +15 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: The use of psychotropics during the COVID-19 pandemic has raised two questions, in order of importance: first, what changes should be made to pharmacological treatments prescribed to mental health patients? Secondly, are there any positive side effects of these substances against SARS-CoV-2? Our aim was to analyze usage safety of psychotropics during COVID-19; therefore, herein, we have studied: (i) the risk of symptomatic complications of COVID-19 associated with the use of these drugs, notably central nervous system activity depression, QTc interval enlargement and infectious and thromboembolic complications; (ii) the risk of mistaking the iatrogenic impact of psychotropics with COVID-19 symptoms, causing diagnostic error. Moreover, we provided a summary of the different information available today for these risks, categorized by mental health disorder, for the following: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, ADHD, sleep disorders and suicidal risk. The matter of psychoactive substance use during the pandemic is also analyzed in this paper, and guideline websites and publications for psychotropic treatments in the context of COVID-19 are referenced during the text, so that changes on those guidelines and eventual interaction between psychotropics and COVID-19 treatment medication can be reported and studied. Finally, we also provide a literature review of the latest known antiviral properties of psychotropics against SARS-CoV-2 as complementary information.

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Topics: Bipolar disorder (52%), Anxiety disorder (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessBook ChapterDOI: 10.5772/INTECHOPEN.97663
27 Apr 2021-
Abstract: The new type of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which has affected the whole world and resulted in many people’s death, has also had negative effects on mental health. The measures, restrictions, and quarantine practices taken to control the pandemic have caused psychological, social, and economic problems. In studies conducted to date, it has been stated that anxiety symptoms, depression, severe adaptation, and sleep disorders are observed in people who have lost their relatives due to COVID-19, who were treated with the diagnosis of COVID-19, or who were exposed to intense information pollution related to the pandemic. It is also known that a large number of people lost their jobs due to the pandemic, and unemployment rates increased in countries. Economies and health systems of many countries are under this significant burden. In addition to the increase in the incidence of mental symptoms and disorders associated with COVID-19, growing socioeconomic problems pose a risk for suicide. In studies on the subject, attention is drawn to the rate of suicide that will increase during and after the pandemic, and warnings are given about taking precautions. In this section, the effects of COVID-19 on suicidal behavior will be discussed in light of findings in the literature.

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1 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.08.15.21262025
18 Aug 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: The overload of healthcare systems around the world and the danger of infection have limited the ability of researchers to obtain sufficient and reliable data on psychopathology in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The relationship between severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and specific mental disturbances remains poorly understood. Aim to reveal the possibility of identifying the typology and frequency of psychiatric syndromes associated with acute COVID-19 using cluster analysis of discrete psychopathological phenomena. Materials and methods Descriptive data on the mental state of 55 inpatients with COVID-19 were obtained by young-career physicians with psychiatric backgrounds. Classification of observed clinical phenomena was performed with k-means cluster analysis of variables codded from the main psychopathological symptoms. Dispersion analysis with p-level 0.05 was used to reveal the cluster’s differences in demography, parameters of inflammation and respiration function collected on the basis of the original medical records. Results Three resulting clusters of patients were identified: persons with anxiety, disorders of fluency and tempo of thinking, mood, attention, motor-volitional sphere, reduced insight, and pessimistic plans for the future (n=11); persons without psychopathology (n=37); persons with disorientation, disorders of memory, attention, fluency, and tempo of thinking, reduced insight (n=7). The development of a certain type of impaired mental state was specifically associated with: age, lung lesions according to computed tomography, saturation, respiratory rate, C-reactive protein level, platelet count. Conclusion The prevalence and typology of psychiatric disorders in patients with acute COVID-19 were described using the computational psychiatry approach.

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Topics: Psychopathology (55%), Anxiety (51%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1055/A-1523-3850
Hans Rittmannsberger1, Martin Barth1, Peter Malik1, Kurosch Yazdi2  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Das Virus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2) und die von ihm ausgeloste Erkrankung COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) konnen zahlreiche Organsysteme betreffen. In vorliegender Arbeit bieten wir einen Uberblick bezuglich des aktuellen Wissensstands uber die psychiatrischen Aspekte der SARS-CoV-2 Infektion. Die Datenbanken Medline, Embase und LIVIVO wurden nach relevanter Literatur untersucht, die letzte Abfrage erfolgte am 02.03.2021. Unterschiedliche Stressfaktoren im Rahmen der Epidemie konnen zu manifesten psychischen Erkrankungen fuhren. Zusatzlich besteht das Risiko psychischer Veranderungen durch die biologischen Effekte des Virus selbst. Beschrieben werden in unserer Arbeit psychische Symptome von an COVID-19 Erkrankten selbst sowie die psychischen Auswirkungen der Epidemie und der damit einhergehenden soziookonomischen und psychosozialen Stressfaktoren auch auf nicht Erkrankte. Bei an COVID-19 Erkrankten zeigen sich als haufigste psychiatrische Komplikation das Auftreten von Delirien, bei hospitalisierten Patienten scheint es zu gehauftem Auftreten von Symptomen von Angst, Depression und posttraumatischen Belastungsstorungen zu kommen. Es liegen auch zahlreiche Kasuistiken uber psychotische Storungen vor. Allgemein steigert eine vorliegende psychiatrische Erkrankung (besonders eine psychotische oder dementielle Storung) auch das Risiko einer Infektion und eines schweren Verlaufes. Nach Ablauf einer COVID-19-Infektion ist ebenfalls eine hohere Inzidenz von psychischen Erkrankungen zu finden, hier ist das „Chronic Post-SARS Syndrome“ mit seinen Auspragungen wie Fatigue, Angst, Depression und PTSD zu nennen. Auserdem scheint der Verlauf einer dementiellen Erkrankung durch eine Infektion mit SARS-CoV-2 negativ beeinflusst zu werden. Ferner wird auf die Auswirkungen eingegangen, die das Bedrohungsszenario der Epidemie und die etablierten gesellschaftlichen Schutzmasnahmen auf die psychische Gesundheit von Menschen mit und ohne psychische Vorerkrankungen haben. Es zeigen sich hier in der derzeit vorliegenden Literatur hohe Symptomwerte betreffend Angst- und depressiven Storungen sowie posttraumatischen Belastungsstorungen, Stress, Suizidalitat, Schlafstorungen, etc. Risikofaktoren scheinen unter anderem weibliches Geschlecht, jungeres Alter und geringere Ressourcen sowie psychische oder korperliche Vorerkrankungen darzustellen. Extrinsische Faktoren wie z-B. hohes Infektionsgeschehen, grose Anzahl von Todesfallen, lange Ausgangssperren/Lockdowns, geringes Vertrauen in die Regierung und ineffektive Masnahmen gegen wirtschaftliche und soziale Folgen steigern die Belastung.

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45 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMANEUROL.2020.1127
Ling Mao1, Huijuan Jin1, Mengdie Wang1, Yu Hu1  +9 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jan 2020-JAMA Neurology
Abstract: Importance The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, is serious and has the potential to become an epidemic worldwide. Several studies have described typical clinical manifestations including fever, cough, diarrhea, and fatigue. However, to our knowledge, it has not been reported that patients with COVID-19 had any neurologic manifestations. Objective To study the neurologic manifestations of patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants This is a retrospective, observational case series. Data were collected from January 16, 2020, to February 19, 2020, at 3 designated special care centers for COVID-19 (Main District, West Branch, and Tumor Center) of the Union Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China. The study included 214 consecutive hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records, and data of all neurologic symptoms were checked by 2 trained neurologists. Neurologic manifestations fell into 3 categories: central nervous system manifestations (dizziness, headache, impaired consciousness, acute cerebrovascular disease, ataxia, and seizure), peripheral nervous system manifestations (taste impairment, smell impairment, vision impairment, and nerve pain), and skeletal muscular injury manifestations. Results Of 214 patients (mean [SD] age, 52.7 [15.5] years; 87 men [40.7%]) with COVID-19, 126 patients (58.9%) had nonsevere infection and 88 patients (41.1%) had severe infection according to their respiratory status. Overall, 78 patients (36.4%) had neurologic manifestations. Compared with patients with nonsevere infection, patients with severe infection were older, had more underlying disorders, especially hypertension, and showed fewer typical symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever and cough. Patients with more severe infection had neurologic manifestations, such as acute cerebrovascular diseases (5 [5.7%] vs 1 [0.8%]), impaired consciousness (13 [14.8%] vs 3 [2.4%]), and skeletal muscle injury (17 [19.3%] vs 6 [4.8%]). Conclusions and Relevance Patients with COVID-19 commonly have neurologic manifestations. During the epidemic period of COVID-19, when seeing patients with neurologic manifestations, clinicians should suspect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection as a differential diagnosis to avoid delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and lose the chance to treat and prevent further transmission.

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3,518 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2286-9
David E. Gordon, Gwendolyn M. Jang, Mehdi Bouhaddou, Jiewei Xu  +125 moreInstitutions (10)
30 Apr 2020-Nature
Abstract: A newly described coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected over 2.3 million people, led to the death of more than 160,000 individuals and caused worldwide social and economic disruption1,2. There are no antiviral drugs with proven clinical efficacy for the treatment of COVID-19, nor are there any vaccines that prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2, and efforts to develop drugs and vaccines are hampered by the limited knowledge of the molecular details of how SARS-CoV-2 infects cells. Here we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 SARS-CoV-2 proteins in human cells and identified the human proteins that physically associated with each of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins using affinity-purification mass spectrometry, identifying 332 high-confidence protein–protein interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins. Among these, we identify 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by 69 compounds (of which, 29 drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, 12 are in clinical trials and 28 are preclinical compounds). We screened a subset of these in multiple viral assays and found two sets of pharmacological agents that displayed antiviral activity: inhibitors of mRNA translation and predicted regulators of the sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors. Further studies of these host-factor-targeting agents, including their combination with drugs that directly target viral enzymes, could lead to a therapeutic regimen to treat COVID-19. A human–SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map highlights cellular processes that are hijacked by the virus and that can be targeted by existing drugs, including inhibitors of mRNA translation and predicted regulators of the sigma receptors.

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Topics: Coronavirus (58%), Drug repositioning (51%)

2,073 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJP.2020.102066
Ravi Philip Rajkumar1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is a major health crisis affecting several nations, with over 720,000 cases and 33,000 confirmed deaths reported to date. Such widespread outbreaks are associated with adverse mental health consequences. Keeping this in mind, existing literature on the COVID-19 outbreak pertinent to mental health was retrieved via a literature search of the PubMed database. Published articles were classified according to their overall themes and summarized. Preliminary evidence suggests that symptoms of anxiety and depression (16-28%) and self-reported stress (8%) are common psychological reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic, and may be associated with disturbed sleep. A number of individual and structural variables moderate this risk. In planning services for such populations, both the needs of the concerned people and the necessary preventive guidelines must be taken into account. The available literature has emerged from only a few of the affected countries, and may not reflect the experience of persons living in other parts of the world. In conclusion, subsyndromal mental health problems are a common response to the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need for more representative research from other affected countries, particularly in vulnerable populations.

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Topics: Mental health (59%), Public health (57%)

1,467 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PSYCHRES.2020.112954
Yeen Huang1, Ning Zhao1, Ning Zhao2Institutions (2)
Abstract: China has been severely affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) since December, 2019. We aimed to assess the mental health burden of Chinese public during the outbreak, and to explore the potential influence factors. Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 7,236 self-selected volunteers assessed with demographic information, COVID-19 related knowledge, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), depressive symptoms, and sleep quality. The overall prevalence of GAD, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality of the public were 35.1%, 20.1%, and 18.2%, respectively. Younger people reported a significantly higher prevalence of GAD and depressive symptoms than older people. Compared with other occupational group, healthcare workers were more likely to have poor sleep quality. Multivariate logistic regression showed that age (< 35 years) and time spent focusing on the COVID-19 (≥ 3 hours per day) were associated with GAD, and healthcare workers were at high risk for poor sleep quality. Our study identified a major mental health burden of the public during the COVID-19 outbreak. Younger people, people spending too much time thinking about the outbreak, and healthcare workers were at high risk of mental illness. Continuous surveillance of the psychological consequences for outbreaks should become routine as part of preparedness efforts worldwide.

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Topics: Anxiety (54%), Mental illness (53%), Generalized anxiety disorder (52%) ... show more

1,340 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BBI.2020.03.031
Yeshun Wu1, Xiaolin Xu2, Zijun Chen3, Jiahao Duan3  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.

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1,050 Citations


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