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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/02692171.2020.1853077

The psychological consequences of COVID-19 lockdowns

04 Mar 2021-International Review of Applied Economics (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 35, Iss: 2, pp 147-163
Abstract: COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in the largest number of lockdowns worldwide in history. While lockdowns may reduce the spread of COVID-19, the downside costs of this approach could be dreadful. By ...

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Topics: Outbreak (54%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10995-018-2643-6
Michael C. Lu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The purpose of this commentary is to start a national conversation about the future of maternal and child health (MCH). In the coming decades, we will have unprecedented opportunities to improve MCH, but will also face unprecedented threats. This paper examines emerging opportunities and threats to MCH, and discusses strategies for leading the future of MCH. Scientific advancements will continue to drive improvements in MCH, but to unleash its full potential for improving population health future MCH research must become more transdisciplinary, translational, and precise. Technological innovations could dramatically transform our work in MCH while big data could enhance predictive analytics and precision health; our challenge will be to assure equitable access. The greatest gains in MCH will continue to come from improving social conditions, which will require advancing MCH in all policies. Climate change, infectious outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance pose increasing threats to MCH, which can be averted by reducing global warming, implementing global early warning systems, and instituting responsible antimicrobial stewardship. The growing burden of chronic diseases in children and adults need to be addressed from an ecological and life course perspective. The water crisis in Flint shined a spotlight on the growing health threats from America’s decaying infrastructure. We can lead the future of MCH by starting a national conversation, improving MCH research, and preparing future MCH workforce, but the future of MCH will depend on our effectiveness in bringing about social and political change in the coming decades.

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6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2147/CEOR.S326728
My Nguyen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This study investigates the extent to which the Public Mask Mandate, a policy that requires the use of face masks in public, can protect people from developing COVID-19 symptoms during the initial stage of the pandemic. By exploiting the differential timing of the mask mandate implementation across the United States, we show that mandating masks in public significantly lowers the incidence of developing all COVID-19 symptoms by 0.29 percentage points. Taking the mandate-unaffected individuals who display all symptoms as the benchmark, our estimate implies an average reduction by 290%. The finding provides suggestive evidence for the health benefits of wearing masks in public in the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also highlights the relevance of public mask wearing for the ongoing pandemic where the vaccination rate is precarious and access to vaccines is still limited in many countries.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17163/RET.N21.2021.04
Abstract: espanolLa subita irrupcion de la pandemia COVID-19 ha propiciado profundos cambios sociales y economicos. Las empresas se han visto obligadas a pivotar sus modelos de negocio para asegurar su continuidad. El presente estudio profundiza en las tendencias observadas en los cambios de los modelos de negocio durante esta crisis. El objetivo de esta investigacion ha sido identificar los factores que se encuentran detras de las iniciativas que han adoptado las empresas, pues presumiblemente se consolidaran y seran la base de disrupciones que eran impensables antes de la pandemia. Una rapida revision sistematica ha permitido recuperar y resumir los resultados de las investigaciones mas relevantes en este campo. Se han seleccionado veintiocho articulos de las principales bases de datos cientificas, Scopus y Web of Science, utilizando el diagrama de flujo de decisiones de inclusion propuesto por PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis). Los principales hallazgos del analisis cualitativo que se ha realizado destacan la importancia de la tecnologia, con la generalizacion de canales digitales de marketing y ventas en las empresas, el teletrabajo y el consumo de productos tecnologicos como la Inteligencia Artificial; la adopcion de innovaciones relacionadas con la propuesta de valor, en la mayoria de las ocasiones en forma de nuevos productos y servicios, como forma mas comun de experimentacion de cara al consumidor; y la generalizacion de iniciativas de colaboracion entre todos los actores del ecosistema empresarial. EnglishThe sudden emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to profound social and economic changes. Companies have been forced to pivot their business models to ensure their continuity. This study delves into the trends observed in the changes in business models during this crisis. The objective of this research has been to identify the factors behind the initiatives they have taken, as they will presumably be consolidated and will be the basis for disruptions unthinkable before the pandemic. A rapid systematic review has allowed to recover and summarize the results of the most relevant research in this field. Twenty-eight articles have been selected from the main scientific databases, Scopus and Web of Science, using the inclusion decision flowchart proposed by PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis). The main findings of qualitative analysis that has been carried out highlight the importance of technology, with the generalization of digital marketing and sales channels in companies, teleworking and consumption of technological products such as Artificial Intelligence; the adoption of innovations related to the value proposition, in most cases in the form of new products and services, as a more common form of consumer experimentation; and the generalization of collaborative initiatives among all actors in the business ecosystem.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13147816
15 May 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: This paper examines how contextual and institutional factors are associated with individual subjective well-being, which is measured by individuals’ happiness, during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data collected in the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the Republic of Korea, Japan, Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), and the four biggest states of the United States (US) in April 2020, we find that the financial effects (represented by employment and income change) and nonfinancial effects (represented by experiencing negative nonfinancial effects including mental health issues and enjoying positive benefits) caused by nonpharmaceutical measures to contain the spread of COVID-19 are associated with individual subjective well-being. Moreover, positive benefits could reduce the likelihood of becoming unhappy for those who have experienced negative nonfinancial effects or those who have lost their jobs. The results also suggest that the degree to which people agree with their government’s approach to dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic is positively correlated with their happiness. The risks associated with the pandemic, however, are only slightly associated with people’s happiness. We also find that the correlation between the above factors and individual well-being varies from country to country.

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Topics: Happiness (56.99%), Subjective well-being (56%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2139/SSRN.3768043
Hakan Yilmazkuday1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Using daily census block group level data from the U.S., this paper investigates the welfare costs of staying at home due to COVID-19 across socioeconomic and demographic groups. The investigation is based on an economic model of which implications suggest that the welfare costs of staying at home increase with the stay-at-home probabilities of individuals. The empirical results provide evidence for significant heterogeneity across census block groups regarding the welfare effects of staying at home. This heterogeneity is further used to obtain measures of welfare changes for different socioeconomic and demographic groups at the national level.

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Topics: Welfare (54%), Socioeconomic status (51%)

1 Citations


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Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: What are the most important differences among national economies? Is globalization forcing nations to converge on an Anglo-American model? What explains national differences in social and economic policy? This pathbreaking work outlines a new approach to these questions. It highlights the role of business in national economies and shows that there is more than one path to economic success.

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Topics: Globalization (56.99%), Coordinated market economy (54%), Institutional complementarity (54%) ... show more

5,774 Citations


Open accessBook
Peter A. Hall1, David SoskiceInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 2001-
Abstract: Scholarship on varieties of capitalism (VofC) explores the ways in which the institutions structuring the political economy affect patterns of economic performance or policy making and the distribution of well-being. Contesting the claim that there is one best route to superior economic performance, a number of schemas have been proposed to explain why countries have often been able to secure substantial rates of growth in different ways, often with relatively egalitarian distributions of income. Prominent among them is a VofC analysis focused on the developed democracies that distinguishes liberal and coordinated market economies according to the ways in which firms coordinate their endeavors. On the basis of institutional complementarities among subspheres of the political economy, it suggests that the institutional structure of the political economy confers comparative institutional advantages, notably for radical and incremental innovation, which explains why economies have not converged in the context of globalization. Although this framework is contested, it has inspired new research on many subjects, including the basis for innovation, the determinants of social policy, the grounds for international negotiation, and the character of institutional change. In this issue area, there is promising terrain for further research into the origins of varieties of capitalism, the factors that drive institutional change in the political economy, how institutional arrangements in the subspheres of the political economy interact with one another, the normative underlay for capitalism, and the effects of varieties of capitalism on multiple dimensions of well-being. Keywords: capitalism; political economy; globalization; politics; institutional change; economic growth; macroeconomics; innovation; complementarities; social policy

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Topics: Coordinated market economy (68%), Capitalism (56%), Globalization (56%) ... show more

2,784 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30074-7
Joel Hellewell1, Sam Abbott1, Amy Gimma1, Nikos I Bosse1  +18 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Summary Background Isolation of cases and contact tracing is used to control outbreaks of infectious diseases, and has been used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whether this strategy will achieve control depends on characteristics of both the pathogen and the response. Here we use a mathematical model to assess if isolation and contact tracing are able to control onwards transmission from imported cases of COVID-19. Methods We developed a stochastic transmission model, parameterised to the COVID-19 outbreak. We used the model to quantify the potential effectiveness of contact tracing and isolation of cases at controlling a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-like pathogen. We considered scenarios that varied in the number of initial cases, the basic reproduction number (R0), the delay from symptom onset to isolation, the probability that contacts were traced, the proportion of transmission that occurred before symptom onset, and the proportion of subclinical infections. We assumed isolation prevented all further transmission in the model. Outbreaks were deemed controlled if transmission ended within 12 weeks or before 5000 cases in total. We measured the success of controlling outbreaks using isolation and contact tracing, and quantified the weekly maximum number of cases traced to measure feasibility of public health effort. Findings Simulated outbreaks starting with five initial cases, an R0 of 1·5, and 0% transmission before symptom onset could be controlled even with low contact tracing probability; however, the probability of controlling an outbreak decreased with the number of initial cases, when R0 was 2·5 or 3·5 and with more transmission before symptom onset. Across different initial numbers of cases, the majority of scenarios with an R0 of 1·5 were controllable with less than 50% of contacts successfully traced. To control the majority of outbreaks, for R0 of 2·5 more than 70% of contacts had to be traced, and for an R0 of 3·5 more than 90% of contacts had to be traced. The delay between symptom onset and isolation had the largest role in determining whether an outbreak was controllable when R0 was 1·5. For R0 values of 2·5 or 3·5, if there were 40 initial cases, contact tracing and isolation were only potentially feasible when less than 1% of transmission occurred before symptom onset. Interpretation In most scenarios, highly effective contact tracing and case isolation is enough to control a new outbreak of COVID-19 within 3 months. The probability of control decreases with long delays from symptom onset to isolation, fewer cases ascertained by contact tracing, and increasing transmission before symptoms. This model can be modified to reflect updated transmission characteristics and more specific definitions of outbreak control to assess the potential success of local response efforts. Funding Wellcome Trust, Global Challenges Research Fund, and Health Data Research UK.

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Topics: Contact tracing (55%)

1,624 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2020-
Abstract: Summary Background Isolation of cases and contact tracing is used to control outbreaks of infectious diseases, and has been used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whether this strategy will achieve control depends on characteristics of both the pathogen and the response. Here we use a mathematical model to assess if isolation and contact tracing are able to control onwards transmission from imported cases of COVID-19. Methods We developed a stochastic transmission model, parameterised to the COVID-19 outbreak. We used the model to quantify the potential effectiveness of contact tracing and isolation of cases at controlling a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-like pathogen. We considered scenarios that varied in the number of initial cases, the basic reproduction number (R 0), the delay from symptom onset to isolation, the probability that contacts were traced, the proportion of transmission that occurred before symptom onset, and the proportion of subclinical infections. We assumed isolation prevented all further transmission in the model. Outbreaks were deemed controlled if transmission ended within 12 weeks or before 5000 cases in total. We measured the success of controlling outbreaks using isolation and contact tracing, and quantified the weekly maximum number of cases traced to measure feasibility of public health effort. Findings Simulated outbreaks starting with five initial cases, an R 0 of 1·5, and 0% transmission before symptom onset could be controlled even with low contact tracing probability; however, the probability of controlling an outbreak decreased with the number of initial cases, when R 0 was 2·5 or 3·5 and with more transmission before symptom onset. Across different initial numbers of cases, the majority of scenarios with an R 0 of 1·5 were controllable with less than 50% of contacts successfully traced. To control the majority of outbreaks, for R 0 of 2·5 more than 70% of contacts had to be traced, and for an R 0 of 3·5 more than 90% of contacts had to be traced. The delay between symptom onset and isolation had the largest role in determining whether an outbreak was controllable when R 0 was 1·5. For R 0 values of 2·5 or 3·5, if there were 40 initial cases, contact tracing and isolation were only potentially feasible when less than 1% of transmission occurred before symptom onset. Interpretation In most scenarios, highly effective contact tracing and case isolation is enough to control a new outbreak of COVID-19 within 3 months. The probability of control decreases with long delays from symptom onset to isolation, fewer cases ascertained by contact tracing, and increasing transmission before symptoms. This model can be modified to reflect updated transmission characteristics and more specific definitions of outbreak control to assess the potential success of local response efforts. Funding Wellcome Trust, Global Challenges Research Fund, and Health Data Research UK.

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Topics: Isolation (health care) (55%)

1,140 Citations


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