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Journal ArticleDOI

The Psychophysics Toolbox.

01 Jan 1997-Spatial Vision (Brill)-Vol. 10, Iss: 4, pp 433-436

TL;DR: The Psychophysics Toolbox is a software package that supports visual psychophysics and its routines provide an interface between a high-level interpreted language and the video display hardware.
Abstract: The Psychophysics Toolbox is a software package that supports visual psychophysics. Its routines provide an interface between a high-level interpreted language (MATLAB on the Macintosh) and the video display hardware. A set of example programs is included with the Toolbox distribution.
Topics: Visual Psychophysics (64%), Toolbox (55%), Psychophysics (52%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Tsai Wen Chen1, Trevor J. Wardill2, Trevor J. Wardill1, Yi Sun1  +11 moreInstitutions (4)
18 Jul 2013-Nature
TL;DR: A family of ultrasensitive protein calcium sensors (GCaMP6) that outperformed other sensors in cultured neurons and in zebrafish, flies and mice in vivo are developed and provide new windows into the organization and dynamics of neural circuits over multiple spatial and temporal scales.
Abstract: Fluorescent calcium sensors are widely used to image neural activity. Using structure-based mutagenesis and neuron-based screening, we developed a family of ultrasensitive protein calcium sensors (GCaMP6) that outperformed other sensors in cultured neurons and in zebrafish, flies and mice in vivo. In layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the mouse visual cortex, GCaMP6 reliably detected single action potentials in neuronal somata and orientation-tuned synaptic calcium transients in individual dendritic spines. The orientation tuning of structurally persistent spines was largely stable over timescales of weeks. Orientation tuning averaged across spine populations predicted the tuning of their parent cell. Although the somata of GABAergic neurons showed little orientation tuning, their dendrites included highly tuned dendritic segments (5-40-µm long). GCaMP6 sensors thus provide new windows into the organization and dynamics of neural circuits over multiple spatial and temporal scales.

4,258 citations


Book
12 Aug 2005-
TL;DR: In An Introduction to the Event-Related Potential Technique, Steve Luck offers the first comprehensive guide to the practicalities of conducting ERP experiments in cognitive neuroscience and related fields, including affective neuroscience and experimental psychopathology.
Abstract: The event-related potential (ERP) technique in cognitive neuroscience allows scientists to observe human brain activity that reflects specific cognitive processes. In An Introduction to the Event-Related Potential Technique, Steve Luck offers the first comprehensive guide to the practicalities of conducting ERP experiments in cognitive neuroscience and related fields, including affective neuroscience and experimental psychopathology. The book can serve as a guide for the classroom or the laboratory and as a reference for researchers who do not conduct ERP studies themselves but need to understand and evaluate ERP experiments in the literature. It summarizes the accumulated body of ERP theory and practice, providing detailed, practical advice about how to design, conduct, and interpret ERP experiments, and presents the theoretical background needed to understand why an experiment is carried out in a particular way. Luck focuses on the most fundamental techniques, describing them as they are used in many of the world's leading ERP laboratories. These techniques reflect a long history of electrophysiological recordings and provide an excellent foundation for more advanced approaches. The book also provides advice on the key topic of how to design ERP experiments so that they will be useful in answering questions of broad scientific interest. This reflects the increasing proportion of ERP research that focuses on these broader questions rather than the "ERPology" of early studies, which concentrated primarily on ERP components and methods. Topics covered include the neural origins of ERPs, signal averaging, artifact rejection and correction, filtering, measurement and analysis, localization, and the practicalities of setting up the lab.

3,415 citations


Cites methods from "The Psychophysics Toolbox."

  • ...This toolbox was developed by two highly respected vision researchers, David Brainard and Dennis Pelli (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997), and they have rigorously tested its...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Jonathan W. Peirce1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A new free suite of software tools designed to make this task easier, using the latest advances in hardware and software, written in the Python interpreted language using entirely free libraries are described.
Abstract: The vast majority of studies into visual processing are conducted using computer display technology. The current paper describes a new free suite of software tools designed to make this task easier, using the latest advances in hardware and software. PsychoPy is a platform-independent experimental control system written in the Python interpreted language using entirely free libraries. PsychoPy scripts are designed to be extremely easy to read and write, while retaining complete power for the user to customize the stimuli and environment. Tools are provided within the package to allow everything from stimulus presentation and response collection (from a wide range of devices) to simple data analysis such as psychometric function fitting. Most importantly, PsychoPy is highly extensible and the whole system can evolve via user contributions. If a user wants to add support for a particular stimulus, analysis or hardware device they can look at the code for existing examples, modify them and submit the modifications back into the package so that the whole community benefits.

3,007 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To identify regions of high connectivity in the human cerebral cortex, a computationally efficient approach was applied to map the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity across the brain and explored whether the topography of hubs could explain the pattern of vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Abstract: Recent evidence suggests that some brain areas act as hubs interconnecting distinct, functionally specialized systems. These nexuses are intriguing because of their potential role in integration and also because they may augment metabolic cascades relevant to brain disease. To identify regions of high connectivity in the human cerebral cortex, we applied a computationally efficient approach to map the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity across the brain. Analysis of two separate functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets (each n = 24) demonstrated hubs throughout heteromodal areas of association cortex. Prominent hubs were located within posterior cingulate, lateral temporal, lateral parietal, and medial/lateral prefrontal cortices. Network analysis revealed that many, but not all, hubs were located within regions previously implicated as components of the default network. A third dataset (n = 12) demonstrated that the locations of hubs were present across passive and active task states, suggesting that they reflect a stable property of cortical network architecture. To obtain an accurate reference map, data were combined across 127 participants to yield a consensus estimate of cortical hubs. Using this consensus estimate, we explored whether the topography of hubs could explain the pattern of vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease (AD) because some models suggest that regions of high activity and metabolism accelerate pathology. Positron emission tomography amyloid imaging in AD (n = 10) compared with older controls (n = 29) showed high amyloid-beta deposition in the locations of cortical hubs consistent with the possibility that hubs, while acting as critical way stations for information processing, may also augment the underlying pathological cascade in AD.

2,293 citations


Cites methods from "The Psychophysics Toolbox."

  • ...The visual stimuli were generated on an Apple PowerBook G4 computer (Apple Computers) using Matlab (MathWorks) and the Psychophysics Toolbox extensions (Brainard, 1997)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
25 Feb 2010-Neuron
TL;DR: The anatomy and function of the default network is explored across three studies to resolve divergent hypotheses about its contributions to spontaneous cognition and active forms of decision making.
Abstract: One of the most consistent observations in human functional imaging is that a network of brain regions referred to as the "default network" increases its activity during passive states. Here we explored the anatomy and function of the default network across three studies to resolve divergent hypotheses about its contributions to spontaneous cognition and active forms of decision making. Analysis of intrinsic activity revealed the network comprises multiple, dissociated components. A midline core (posterior cingulate and anterior medial prefrontal cortex) is active when people make self-relevant, affective decisions. In contrast, a medial temporal lobe subsystem becomes engaged when decisions involve constructing a mental scene based on memory. During certain experimentally directed and spontaneous acts of future-oriented thought, these dissociated components are simultaneously engaged, presumably to facilitate construction of mental models of personally significant events.

1,929 citations


Cites methods from "The Psychophysics Toolbox."

  • ...Visual stimuli were programmed using Psychophysics Toolbox software (Brainard, 1997) and were projected onto a computer screen positioned at the back of the scanner....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Denis G. Pelli1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1997-Spatial Vision
TL;DR: The VideoToolbox is a free collection of two hundred C subroutines for Macintosh computers that calibrates and controls the computer-display interface to create accurately specified visual stimuli.
Abstract: The VideoToolbox is a free collection of two hundred C subroutines for Macintosh computers that calibrates and controls the computer-display interface to create accurately specified visual stimuli. High-level platform-independent languages like MATLAB are best for creating the numbers that describe the desired images. Low-level, computer-specific VideoToolbox routines control the hardware that transforms those numbers into a movie. Transcending the particular computer and language, we discuss the nature of the computer-display interface, and how to calibrate and control it.

9,169 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An adaptive psychometric procedure that places each trial at the current most probable Bayesian estimate of threshold is described, taking advantage of the common finding that the human psychometric function is invariant in form when expressed as a function of log intensity.
Abstract: An adaptive psychometric procedure that places each trial at the current most probable Bayesian estimate of threshold is described. The procedure takes advantage of the common finding that the human psychometric function is invariant in form when expressed as a function of log intensity. The procedure is simple, fast, and efficient, and may be easily implemented on any computer.

2,188 citations


"The Psychophysics Toolbox." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Ancilliary routines support commonly used procedures such as color space transformations (Brainard, 1995) and the QUEST (Watson and Pelli, 1983; Pelli and Farell, 1995) threshold seeking algorithm....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Denis G. Pelli1, Lan Zhang1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1991-Vision Research
TL;DR: An easy-to-build passive resistor network, a video attenuator, that combines the outputs of three 8-bit DACs to render low contrasts with 12-bit accuracy at the display is presented.
Abstract: Off-the-shelf microcomputers can now display arbitrary 8-bit images, but accurate control of these images requires dealing with several undesirable properties of real digital to analog converters (DACs) and analog video monitors. The limitations of DACs and video monitors are presented in the form of a model for their calibration and use in vision experiments. Low contrasts can be accurately rendered by summing a small accurate a.c. signal and a large less-accurate d.c. signal (Watson et al., 1986; Behavior Research, Method, Instrument and Computers, 18, 587–594). Exploiting that idea, this note presents an easy-to-build passive resistor network, a video attenuator, that combines the outputs of three 8-bit DACs to render low contrasts with 12-bit accuracy at the display. Measurements confirm the 12-bit accuracy.

474 citations


"The Psychophysics Toolbox." refers methods in this paper

  • ...core routines rely on the subroutines in Pelli's VideoToolbox ( Pelli and Zhang, 1991; Pelli, 1996)...

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  • ...The core routines rely on the subroutines in Pelli's VideoToolbox (Pelli and Zhang, 1991; Pelli, 1996) which provide low-level control of the Macintosh display hardware....

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Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202211
20211,413
20201,562
20191,512
20181,458
20171,377