The Relationship Among Alcohol Consumption, Dietary Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults
01 Aug 2005-Journal of The American Dietetic Association (Elsevier)-Vol. 105, Iss: 8, pp 60
About: This article is published in Journal of The American Dietetic Association.The article was published on 2005-08-01 and is currently open access. It has received 2 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Body mass index.
Summary (1 min read)
Jump to: [Introduction] – [Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption in Young Adults] – [Alcohol Metabolism] – [Overview] and [Body Mass Index]
- She is an excellent mentor for whom my respect has grown tremendously over the past semesters.
- In 1995 to 1996, the Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS), an epidemiologic study of CVD risk factors from birth through young adulthood, surveyed young adults who were BHS participants in childhood to assess dietary intake and alcohol consumption.
- The YAQ is a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in which foods are grouped into broad categories.
Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption in Young Adults
- The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse , a project of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the federal government, was initiated in 1971 and is the primary source of information on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco (13).
- NHANES reports that the prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults was relatively constant from 1960 to 1980; however, by 1988-1994 NHANES III, overweight 12 and obesity increased significantly for white and black males and females aged 20 to 74 (45).
- They were shown to be valid and reproducible in both populations.
- Energy from alcohol was added to the diets of light drinkers but replaced non- alcohol energy, especially from carbohydrates, in moderate and heavy drinkers (15).
- A study of 179 middle-class males was designed to quantify long-term alcohol intake and to investigate the relation of level of alcohol consumption with dietary intake (71).
- The paradoxical inverse relation sometimes seen between alcohol consumption and body weight remains unexplained by nutritionists.
- When alcohol energy was added to non-alcohol energy, subjects failed to gain weight (78, 81).
- Alcohol may increase meal size through a combination of direct and indirect effects (95).
- Frequency of drinking was consistently lower for females than for males.
- Possible effects of changes in marital status, employment status, and having children on alcohol consumption and the frequency of heavy drink ing was examined in 1,327 males and females aged 16 to 69 years (119).
- General data collection procedures used in the Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS) are described below; however, a specific data set was used for this thesis.
- The study design, participation, and protocols are described in detail elsewhere (39).
Body Mass Index
- The adjusted means (+ SE) for BMI (kg/m2) of drinkers by gender, race, and race/gender are shown in Table 11a.
- No other significant differences were seen among levels of alcohol consumption.
- Waist Circumference Table 12a shows the adjusted means (+ SE) for waist circumference (cm) of drinkers by gender, race, and race/gender.
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01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: Intake of spirits and beer as well as smoking was measured by questionnaire in a random population sample from two counties of Eastern Finland in 1972 and during a 7-yr follow-up 209 of these men had developed an acute myocardial infarction and 223 men had died.
Abstract: Intake of spirits and beer as well as smoking was measured by questionnaire in a random population sample from two counties of Eastern Finland in 1972. At the same time serum cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure were measured in a field examination. The study material consists of 4063 men aged 30-59 years (participation rate 92%). During a 7-yr follow-up 209 of these men had developed an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 223 men had died. Reported spirits and beer intake had both a strong positive association with smoking and serum triglycerides, a weak positive association with diastolic blood pressure, but no relationship to serum total cholesterol. Use of spirits at least once a week was associated with a reduced risk of AMI. The relative risk (RR), adjusted for age and conventional coronary risk factors was 0.5 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.3-0.9). Consumption of beer had no significant relationship to the risk of AMI. Consumption of at least five bottles of beer a week was related to a slightly excessive risk of death from any cause (adjusted RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.1). Spirits intake had no significant association with the risk of death.
01 Jan 1987
TL;DR: For example, this article found that women who consumed alcohol 7-13 times per week had the greatest reduction in weight, while men had only a slight effect on weight in either survey.
Abstract: Alcohol contributes more than 10 per cent of the total caloric intake of adult drinkers in the United States. However, the effect of alcohol on body weight has not been adequately studied in the general population. The association between weight and frequency of alcohol consumption was examined in two national cross-sectional surveys: the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANESII; n = 10,929) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveys (BRFS; n = 18,388). Linear multiple regression was used to estimate the independent effect of alcohol on weight, adjusting for smoking, age, diet practices, physical activity, race, education, and height. Among men, alcohol had only a slight effect on weight in either survey. However, among women, alcohol was associated with a substantial reduction in weight, which was as large as the effect of smoking. Compared with nondrinkers, women who consumed alcohol 7-13 times per week had the greatest reduction in weight: -3.6 kg (95% confidence limits [CL] = -5.6,...
TL;DR: The increases in the prevalences of obesity and overweight previously observed continued in 1999-2000, and increases occurred for both men and women in all age groups and for non-Hispanic whites, non- Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans.
Abstract: ContextThe prevalence of obesity and overweight increased in the United States between 1978 and 1991. More recent reports have suggested continued increases but are based on self-reported data.ObjectiveTo examine trends and prevalences of overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥25) and obesity (BMI ≥30), using measured height and weight data.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsSurvey of 4115 adult men and women conducted in 1999 and 2000 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample of the US population.Main Outcome MeasureAge-adjusted prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity compared with prior surveys, and sex-, age-, and race/ethnicity–specific estimates.ResultsThe age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 30.5% in 1999-2000 compared with 22.9% in NHANES III (1988-1994; P<.001). The prevalence of overweight also increased during this period from 55.9% to 64.5% (P<.001). Extreme obesity (BMI ≥40) also increased significantly in the population, from 2.9% to 4.7% (P = .002). Although not all changes were statistically significant, increases occurred for both men and women in all age groups and for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. Racial/ethnic groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of obesity or overweight for men. Among women, obesity and overweight prevalences were highest among non-Hispanic black women. More than half of non-Hispanic black women aged 40 years or older were obese and more than 80% were overweight.ConclusionsThe increases in the prevalences of obesity and overweight previously observed continued in 1999-2000. The potential health benefits from reduction in overweight and obesity are of considerable public health importance.
TL;DR: Intervention in obesity, in addition to the well established risk factors, appears to be an advisable goal in the primary prevention of CVD.
Abstract: The relationship between the degree of obesity and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was reexamined in the 5209 men and women of the original Framingham cohort. Recent observations of disease occurrence over 26 years indicate that obesity, measured by Metropolitan Relative Weight, was a significant independent predictor of CVD, particularly among women. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that Metropolitan Relative Weight, or percentage of desirable weight, on initial examination predicted 26-year incidence of coronary disease (both angina and coronary disease other than angina), coronary death and congestive heart failure in men independent of age, cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, cigarettes, left ventricular hypertrophy and glucose intolerance. Relative weight in women was also positively and independently associated with coronary disease, stroke, congestive failure, and coronary and CVD death. These data further show that weight gain after the young adult years conveyed an increased risk of CVD in both sexes that could not be attributed either to the initial weight or the levels of the risk factors that may have resulted from weight gain. Intervention in obesity, in addition to the well established risk factors, appears to be an advisable goal in the primary prevention of CVD.
TL;DR: The hypothesis that the inverse relation between alcohol consumption and risk of coronary disease is causal is supported.
Abstract: Although an inverse association between alcohol consumption and risk of coronary artery disease has been consistently found in several types of studies, some have argued that the association is due at least partly to the inclusion in the non-drinking reference group of men who abstain because of pre-existing disease. The association between self-reported alcohol intake and coronary disease was studied prospectively among 51,529 male health professionals. In 1986 the participants completed questionnaires about food and alcohol intake and medical history, heart disease risk factors, and dietary changes in the previous 10 years. Follow-up questionnaires in 1988 sought information about newly diagnosed coronary disease. 350 confirmed cases of coronary disease occurred. After adjustment for coronary risk factors, including dietary intake of cholesterol, fat, and dietary fibre, increasing alcohol intake was inversely related to coronary disease incidence (p for trend less than 0.001). Exclusion of 10,302 current non-drinkers or 16,342 men with disorders potentially related to coronary disease (eg, hypertension, diabetes, and gout) which might have led men to reduce their alcohol intake, did not substantially affect the relative risks. These findings support the hypothesis that the inverse relation between alcohol consumption and risk of coronary disease is causal.
TL;DR: The inverse association of moderate alcohol intake with the risk of myocardial infarction is confirmed and support the view that the effect is mediated, in large part, by increases in both HDL2 and HDL3.
Abstract: Background Previous studies have suggested that moderate alcohol intake exerts a protective effect against coronary heart disease. Alterations in plasma lipoprotein levels represent one plausible mechanism of this apparent protective effect. Methods We therefore examined the interrelation among alcohol consumption, plasma lipoprotein levels, and the risk of myocardial infarction in 340 patients who had had myocardial infarctions and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls. The case patients were men or women less than 76 years of age with no history of coronary disease who were discharged from one of six hospitals in the Boston area with a diagnosis of a confirmed myocardial infarction. Alcohol consumption was estimated by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. Results We observed a significant inverse association between alcohol consumption and the risk of myocardial infarction (P for trend, <0.001 after control for known coronary risk factors). In multivariate analyses, the relative risk for ...
TL;DR: Results from observational studies provide strong evidence that all alcoholic drinks are linked with lower risk, so that much of the benefit is from alcohol rather than other components of each type of drink.
Abstract: Objectives: To review the effect of specific types of alcoholic drink on coronary risk. Design: Systematic review of ecological, case-control, and cohort studies in which specific associations were available for consumption of beer, wine, and spirits and risk of coronary heart disease. Subjects: 12 ecological, three case-control, and 10 separate prospective cohort studies. Main outcome measures: Alcohol consumption and relative risk of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease. Results: Most ecological studies suggested that wine was more effective in reducing risk of mortality from heart disease than beer or spirits. Taken together, the three case-control studies did not suggest that one type of drink was more cardioprotective than the others. Of the 10 prospective cohort studies, four found a significant inverse association between risk of heart disease and moderate wine drinking, four found such an association for beer, and four for spirits. Conclusions: Results from observational studies, where alcohol consumption can be linked directly to an individual9s risk of coronary heart disease, provide strong evidence that all alcoholic drinks are linked with lower risk. Thus, a substantial portion of the benefit is from alcohol rather than other components of each type of drink. Key messages Key messages We examined the relation between specific alcoholic drinks and reduction of risk of coronary heart disease by summarising published reports from ecological, case-control, and cohort studies Most ecological studies suggested that wine was more effective in reducing risk of mortality than beer or spirits, whereas the three case-control studies together did not suggest that one type of drink was more cardioprotective than others Of the 10 prospective cohort studies, four found a significant inverse association between risk of heart disease and moderate wine drinking, four found the association for beer, and four found it for spirits. The evidence suggests that all alcoholic drinks are linked with lower risk, so that much of the benefit is from alcohol rather than other components of each type of drink