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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/2159676X.2019.1687582

The role of elite coaches’ expertise in identifying key constraints on long jump performance: how practice task designs can enhance athlete self-regulation in competition

04 Mar 2021-Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health (Routledge)-Vol. 13, Iss: 2, pp 283-299
Abstract: Understanding performance behaviours provides useful information for practitioners that can assist with the design of tasks to enhance the specificity of practice. In this study, the experiential knowledge of six elite long jump coaches was investigated using a constructivist grounded theory approach, with the aim of furthering our understanding of the competitive behaviours of elite long jump athletes and how they adapt actions to the emotional and physical demands of performance environments. Findings offer a coaches’ perspective on three performance contexts which shape athlete performance – perform, respond and manage – towards two common performance intentions (maximum jump and sub-maximal jump). We contend that these findings reflect how coaches perceive performance as a series of connected events (jumps), during which athlete intentionality facilitates self-regulatory strategies in the face of unique interactions between individual, task and environmental constraints across a competition. These findings highlight how individuals must continually co-adapt with constraints in performance environments supporting how athletes self-regulate using intentionality, emotions and cognitions. Practice task designs should, therefore, provide greater opportunities for athletes to learn to self-regulate in performance contexts, with opportunities to perform, respond and manage. Interpreting the coaches’ insights, we suggest that these major performance contexts of perform, respond and manage could, therefore, be strategically used to frame representative learning designs, providing a framework for better organisation of training tasks.

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Open access
01 May 2004-
Abstract: Lewis, Granic and the several chapter authors have produced a rich volume encompassing emotion theory and research with integration to clinical practice. The book begins with a necessary introduction which defines several key terms one must grasp in order to follow the book with its heavy emphasis on emotion theory. These definitions include dynamic systems theory, non-linear dynamic, state space, chaos theory and variants of self-organization. The book is otherwise broken into 3 major sections. Intrapersonal processes focuses on internal working emotional systems and their development. Neurobiological processes focuses on the neurobiological equivalents of emotion and emotion development. Interpersonal processes elaborate, in detail, on the role of parent-child relationships, attachment, interpersonal dynamics and the role of marital relationships as a model. The various chapters take an in depth look at both recent and some more classical research findings. This is interwoven with new thinking of some of the brightest minds in this field today, The chapter on Marital Modelling for example blends theory to this (Washington University) group’s own research, to practical assessment and therapeutic instruments. To whet the theorist/researcher’s appetite, the chapter goes into a mathematical model describing the marital dyad. Finally, it concludes with eight hypotheses that this group is studying toward the development of an empirically based marital intervention. Such a chapter is bound to stir up other researchers’ competitive and collaborative instincts, resulting in the provocation of both thought and emotion. This book is definitely dense, and, despite its relative brevity, it is geared primarily for a subgroup of research based professionals and interested others. Regardless of this challenge, it is well worth the read as much more than a primer on this evolving and cutting-edge research and clinical area.

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188 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/253076C0
01 Jan 1975-Nature
Abstract: Science and Medicine of Exercise and Sport. Edited by Warren R. Johnson and E. R. Buskirk. Pp. 486. (Harper and Row: New York and London, 1973.) £10.00.

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83 Citations


Open access
Paul S. Glazier1, Keith Davids1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2009-
Abstract: In sport and exercise biomechanics, forward dynamics analyses or simulations have frequently been used in attempts to establish optimal techniques for performance of a wide range of motor activities. However, the accuracy and validity of these simulations is largely dependent on the complexity of the mathematical model used to represent the neuromusculoskeletal system. It could be argued that complex mathematical models are superior to simple mathematical models as they enable basic mechanical insights to be made and individual-specific optimal movement solutions to be identified. Contrary to some claims in the literature, however, we suggest that it is currently not possible to identify the complete optimal solution for a given motor activity. For a complete optimization of human motion, dynamical systems theory implies that mathematical models must incorporate a much wider range of organismic, environmental and task constraints. These ideas encapsulate why sports medicine specialists need to adopt more individualized clinical assessment procedures in interpreting why performers' movement patterns may differ.

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Topics: Mathematical model (51%)

15 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40798-020-00268-5
Carl T. Woods1, Ian McKeown, Mark O'Sullivan2, Sam Robertson1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: A fundamental challenge for practitioners in high-level sporting environments concerns how to support athletes in adapting behaviours to solve emergent problems during competitive performance. Guided by an ecological dynamics framework, the design and integration of competitive performance preparation models that place athlete-environment interactions at the heart of the learning process may address this challenge. This ecological conceptualisation of performance preparation signifies a shift in a coach’s role; evolving from a consistent solution provider to a learning environment designer who fosters local athlete-environment interactions. However, despite the past decades of research within the ecological dynamics framework developing an evidence-based, theoretical conceptualisation of skill acquisition, expertise and talent development, an ongoing challenge resides within its practical integration into sporting environments. This article provides two case examples in which high-level sports organisations have utilised an ecological dynamics framework for performance preparation in Australian football and Association Football. A unique perspective is offered on experiences of professional sport organisations attempting to challenge traditional ideologies for athlete performance preparation by progressing the theoretical application of ecological dynamics. These case examples intend to promote the sharing of methodological ideas to improve athlete development, affording opportunities for practitioners and applied scientists to accept, reject or adapt the approaches presented here to suit their specific ecosystems.

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Topics: Learning environment (51%)

14 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PSYCHSPORT.2020.101754
Abstract: © 2020 Elsevier Ltd Background: During the past decade, an extensive body of work has documented the Constraints-Led Approach (CLA) as a prominent methodology for developing collective synergetic tendencies in sports teams. Objectives: This study aimed to quantify and compare findings, in existing research, related to key synergetic properties of dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation in team sports performance. Method: A literature search was conducted for articles published until December 2019, on electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were defined before the selection process. From selected articles information was extracted on authors, year of publication, study design, study context, sample, sport, variables assessed, type of constraints manipulated, statistical methods, and main findings. The manuscripts' methodological quality was assessed through the Downs and Black checklist. A meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model and subgroup analyses were conducted for two potential moderators: dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation. Results: A total of 62 and 26 studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic and meta-analysis, respectively. Results revealed that investigations tended to mostly evaluate how task constraints manipulations shaped emergent tactical behaviors of male football players within training contexts. A high level of heterogeneity (I2 = 99.56%, p < .001) was found across studies and publication biases were observed in the literature. Conclusions: The high level of heterogeneity is possibly justified by the diversity of metrics applied to assess players' performance behaviors. The level of research heterogeneity observed also supports the assumption that variable behaviors enhance adaptive tendencies in teams. Observed publication and inflation biases highlighted the need to adopt methodological procedures that avoid systematic flaws in future investigations.

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9 Citations


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48 results found


Open accessBook
01 Jan 2008-
Abstract: Introduction -- Practical considerations -- Prelude to analysis -- Strategies for qualitative data analysis -- Introduction to context, process and theoretical integration -- Memos and diagrams -- Theoretical sampling -- Analyzing data for concepts -- Elaborating the analysis -- Analyzing data for context -- Bringing process into the analysis -- Integrating around a concept -- Writing theses, monographs, and giving talks -- Criterion for evaluation -- Student questions and answers to these.

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Topics: Grounded theory (59%), Theoretical sampling (56%), Context (language use) (55%) ... show more

31,251 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1980-
Topics: Qualitative research (55%)

26,843 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1967-
Abstract: The discovery of grounded theory , The discovery of grounded theory , کتابخانه مرکزی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران

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Topics: Grounded theory (62%)

21,330 Citations


Open accessBook
James J. Gibson1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1979-
Abstract: Contents: Preface. Introduction. Part I: The Environment To Be Perceived.The Animal And The Environment. Medium, Substances, Surfaces. The Meaningful Environment. Part II: The Information For Visual Perception.The Relationship Between Stimulation And Stimulus Information. The Ambient Optic Array. Events And The Information For Perceiving Events. The Optical Information For Self-Perception. The Theory Of Affordances. Part III: Visual Perception.Experimental Evidence For Direct Perception: Persisting Layout. Experiments On The Perception Of Motion In The World And Movement Of The Self. The Discovery Of The Occluding Edge And Its Implications For Perception. Looking With The Head And Eyes. Locomotion And Manipulation. The Theory Of Information Pickup And Its Consequences. Part IV: Depiction.Pictures And Visual Awareness. Motion Pictures And Visual Awareness. Conclusion. Appendixes: The Principal Terms Used in Ecological Optics. The Concept of Invariants in Ecological Optics.

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Topics: Visual perception (61%), Structural information theory (59%), Ambient optic array (58%) ... show more

20,775 Citations


Open access
Joseph A. Maxwell1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1998-
Abstract: T raditionally, works on research design (most of which focus on quantitative research) have understood " design " in one of two ways. Some take designs to be fixed, standard arrangements of research conditions and methods that have their own coherence and logic, as possible answers to the question, " What research design are you using? " (e.g., Campbell & Stanley, 1967). For example, a randomized, double-blind experiment is one research design; an interrupted time-series design is another. Beyond such broad categories as ethnographies, qualitative interview studies, and case studies (which often overlap), qualitative research lacks any such elaborate typology into which studies can be pigeonholed. In addition, typologies are usually based on a limited number of features of the study, and by themselves do little to clarify the actual functioning and interrelationship of the component parts of a design. Other models present design as a logical progression of stages or tasks, from problem formulation to the generation of conclusions or theory, that are necessary in planning or carrying out a study (e.g., Creswell, 1997; Marshall & Rossman, 1999). Such models usually resemble a flowchart with a clear starting point and goal and a specified order for doing the intermediate tasks. Although some versions of this approach are circular or iterative (see, e.g., Bickman & Rog, Chapter 1, this volume), so that later steps connect back to earlier ones, all such models are linear in the sense that they are made up of one-directional sequences of steps that represent what is seen as the optimal order for conceptualizing or conducting the different components or activities of a study. Neither of these models adequately represents the logic and process of qualitative research. In a qualitative study, " research design should be a reflexive process operating through every stage of a project "

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1,720 Citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
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20204
20161
20091
20041
19751