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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EXPNEUROL.2021.113685

The role of glymphatic system in the cerebral edema formation after ischemic stroke.

05 Mar 2021-Experimental Neurology (Academic Press)-Vol. 340, pp 113685-113685
Abstract: Cerebral edema following ischemic stroke is predictive of the severity of the eventual stroke related damage, however the effective treatment is limited. The glymphatic system is a recently identified waste clearance pathway in the brain, found in the paravascular space and mainly composed of astrocytes and their aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels. In this review, we primarily focus on the role of the glymphatic system in the formation of cerebral edema after ischemic stroke. There is still no definite conclusion whether the influx of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the glymphatic system is increased or not after ischemic stroke. However, the reduced interstitial fluid (ISF) clearance after ischemic stroke is definite. Additionally, AQP4 as the most important part of glymphatic system plays a complex bimodal in cerebral edema after ischemic stroke. Most of the research has found that AQP4 deletion in animals reduces cerebral edema after acute ischemic stroke compared with wild type animal models. The mislocalization of astrocytic AQP4 was also presented after ischemic stroke. As the cerebral edema after ischemic stroke is difficult to treat, we discuss several potential treatment targets related to glymphatic system. More studies are needed to explore the role of glymphatic system in the formation of cerebral edema after ischemic stroke and develop probable treatment strategies.

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Topics: Glymphatic system (66%), Cerebral edema (63%), Stroke (61%)
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNCEL.2021.716825
Sichao Chen1, Linqian Shao1, Li Ma1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Brain edema is a severe stroke complication that is associated with prolonged hospitalization and poor outcomes. Swollen tissues in the brain compromise cerebral perfusion and may also result in transtentorial herniation. As a physical and biochemical barrier between the peripheral circulation and the central nervous system (CNS), the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a vital role in maintaining the stable microenvironment of the CNS. Under pathological conditions, such as ischemic stroke, the dysfunction of the BBB results in increased paracellular permeability, directly contributing to the extravasation of blood components into the brain and causing cerebral vasogenic edema. Recent studies have led to the discovery of the glymphatic system and meningeal lymphatic vessels, which provide a channel for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to enter the brain and drain to nearby lymph nodes and communicate with the peripheral immune system, modulating immune surveillance and brain responses. A deeper understanding of the function of the cerebral lymphatic system calls into question the known mechanisms of cerebral edema after stroke. In this review, we first discuss how BBB disruption after stroke can cause or contribute to cerebral edema from the perspective of molecular and cellular pathophysiology. Finally, we discuss how the cerebral lymphatic system participates in the formation of cerebral edema after stroke and summarize the pathophysiological process of cerebral edema formation after stroke from the two directions of the BBB and cerebral lymphatic system.

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Topics: Cerebral edema (66%), Glymphatic system (61%), Cerebral perfusion pressure (59%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNAGI.2021.689098
Tao Lv1, Bing Zhao1, Qin Hu1, Xiaohua Zhang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The glymphatic system (GS) is a novel defined brain-wide perivascular transit network between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial solutes that facilitates the clearance of brain metabolic wastes. The complicated network of the GS consists of the periarterial CSF influx pathway, astrocytes-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes supported by AQP4 water channels, and perivenous efflux pathway. Recent researches indicate that the GS dysfunction is associated with various neurological disorders, including traumatic brain injury, hydrocephalus, epilepsy, migraine, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Meanwhile, the GS also plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiological process of stroke, including brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, immune cell infiltration, neuroinflammation, and neuronal apoptosis. In this review, we illustrated the key anatomical structures of the GS, the relationship between the GS and the meningeal lymphatic system, the interaction between the GS and the BBB, and the crosstalk between astrocytes and other GS cellular components. In addition, we contributed to the current knowledge about the role of the GS in the pathology of stroke and the role of AQP4 in stroke. We further discussed the potential use of the GS in early risk assessment, diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics of stroke.

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Topics: Glymphatic system (61%), Neuroinflammation (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2021/4504363
Zhongkuan Lyu1, Yuanjin Chan1, Qiyue Li1, Qiang Zhang2  +7 moreInstitutions (2)
14 Aug 2021-Neural Plasticity
Abstract: Neuroinflammation-related amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) accounts for cerebral I/R injuries and poststroke dementia. Recently, pyroptosis, a proinflammatory cell death, has been identified as a crucial pathological link of cerebral I/R injuries. However, whether pyroptosis acts as a trigger of Aβ accumulation after cerebral I/R has not yet been demonstrated. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) and glymphatic system mediated by aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) on astrocytic endfeet are important pathways for the clearance of Aβ in the brain, and pyroptosis especially occurring in astrocytes after cerebral I/R potentially damages BBB integrity and glymphatic function and thus influences Aβ clearance and brain homeostasis. In present study, the method of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) was used for building models of focal cerebral I/R injuries in rats. Then, we used lipopolysaccharide and glycine as the agonist and inhibitor of pyroptosis, respectively, Western blotting for detections of pyroptosis, AQP-4, and Aβ1-42 oligomers, laser confocal microscopy for observations of pyroptosis and Aβ locations, and immunohistochemical stainings of SMI 71 (a specific marker for BBB integrity)/AQP-4 and Nissl staining for evaluating, respectively, BBB-glymphatic system and neuronal damage. The results showed that pyroptosis obviously promoted the loss of BBB integrity and AQP-4 polarization, brain edema, Aβ accumulation, and the formation of Aβ1-42 oligomers and thus increased neuronal damage after cerebral I/R. However, glycine could inhibit cerebral I/R-induced pyroptosis by alleviating cytomembrane damage and downregulating expression levels of cleaved caspase-11/1, N-terminal gasdermin D, NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing protein 3), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β and markedly abate above pathological changes. Our study revealed that pyroptosis is a considerable factor causing toxic Aβ accumulation, dysfunctional BBB-glymphatic system, and neurological deficits after cerebral I/R, suggesting that targeting pyroptosis is a potential strategy for the prevention of ischemic stroke sequelae including dementia.

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Topics: Pyroptosis (62%), Amyloid beta (53%), Glymphatic system (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22094725
Abstract: Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) due to alterations in cellular and structural components of the neurovascular unit, particularly in association with neuroinflammation. A previous screening study of peptide ligands to identify molecular alterations of the BBB in neuroinflammation by phage-display, revealed that phage clone 88 presented specific binding affinity to endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions in vivo and in vitro. Here, we aimed to identify the possible target receptor of the peptide ligand 88 expressed under inflammatory conditions. A cross-link test between phage-peptide-88 with IL-1β-stimulated human hCMEC cells, followed by mass spectrometry analysis, was used to identify the target of peptide-88. We modeled the epitope–receptor molecular interaction between peptide-88 and its target by using docking simulations. Three proteins were selected as potential target candidates and tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with peptide-88: fibronectin, laminin subunit α5 and laminin subunit β-1. Among them, only laminin subunit β-1 presented measurable interaction with peptide-88. Peptide-88 showed specific interaction with laminin subunit β-1, highlighting its importance as a potential biomarker of the laminin changes that may occur at the BBB endothelial cells under pathological inflammation conditions.

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Topics: Neuroinflammation (55%), Blood–brain barrier (53%), Laminin (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14728222.2021.2010045
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Cerebral edema is a key contributor to death and disability in several forms of brain injury. Current treatment options are limited, reactive, and associated with significant morbidity. Targeted therapies are emerging based on a growing understanding of the molecular underpinnings of cerebral edema. AREAS COVERED We review the pathophysiology and relationships between different cerebral edema subtypes to provide a foundation for emerging therapies. Mechanisms for promising molecular targets are discussed, with an emphasis on those advancing in clinical trials, including ion and water channels (AQP4, SUR1-TRPM4) and other proteins/lipids involved in edema signaling pathways (AVP, COX2, VEGF, S1P). Research on novel treatment modalities for cerebral edema [including recombinant proteins and gene therapies] is presented and finally, insights on reducing secondary injury and improving clinical outcome are offered. EXPERT OPINION Targeted molecular strategies to minimize or prevent cerebral edema are promising. Inhibition of SUR1-TRPM4 (glyburide/glibenclamide) and VEGF (bevacizumab) are currently closest to translation based on advances in clinical trials. However, the latter, tested in glioblastoma multiforme, has not demonstrated survival benefit. Research on recombinant proteins and gene therapies for cerebral edema is in its infancy, but early results are encouraging. These newer modalities may facilitate our understanding of the pathobiology underlying cerebral edema.

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Topics: Cerebral edema (57%), Edema (53%)

References
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84 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000558
20 Mar 2018-Circulation
Abstract: Each chapter listed in the Table of Contents (see next page) is a hyperlink to that chapter. The reader clicks the chapter name to access that chapter. Each chapter listed here is a hyperlink. Click on the chapter name to be taken to that chapter. Each year, the American Heart Association (AHA), in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and other government agencies, brings together in a single document the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and the cardiovascular risk factors listed in the AHA’s My Life Check - Life’s Simple 7 (Figure1), which include core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure [BP], and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update represents …

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4,004 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1241224
Lulu Xie1, Hongyi Kang1, Qiwu Xu1, Michael Chen1  +8 moreInstitutions (2)
18 Oct 2013-Science
Abstract: The conservation of sleep across all animal species suggests that sleep serves a vital function. We here report that sleep has a critical function in ensuring metabolic homeostasis. Using real-time assessments of tetramethylammonium diffusion and two-photon imaging in live mice, we show that natural sleep or anesthesia are associated with a 60% increase in the interstitial space, resulting in a striking increase in convective exchange of cerebrospinal fluid with interstitial fluid. In turn, convective fluxes of interstitial fluid increased the rate of β-amyloid clearance during sleep. Thus, the restorative function of sleep may be a consequence of the enhanced removal of potentially neurotoxic waste products that accumulate in the awake central nervous system.

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2,483 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCITRANSLMED.3003748
Jeffrey J. Iliff1, Minghuan Wang2, Minghuan Wang1, Yonghong Liao1  +8 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Because it lacks a lymphatic circulation, the brain must clear extracellular proteins by an alternative mechanism. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) functions as a sink for brain extracellular solutes, but it is not clear how solutes from the brain interstitium move from the parenchyma to the CSF. We demonstrate that a substantial portion of subarachnoid CSF cycles through the brain interstitial space. On the basis of in vivo two-photon imaging of small fluorescent tracers, we showed that CSF enters the parenchyma along paravascular spaces that surround penetrating arteries and that brain interstitial fluid is cleared along paravenous drainage pathways. Animals lacking the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in astrocytes exhibit slowed CSF influx through this system and a ~70% reduction in interstitial solute clearance, suggesting that the bulk fluid flow between these anatomical influx and efflux routes is supported by astrocytic water transport. Fluorescent-tagged amyloid β, a peptide thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease, was transported along this route, and deletion of the Aqp4 gene suppressed the clearance of soluble amyloid β, suggesting that this pathway may remove amyloid β from the central nervous system. Clearance through paravenous flow may also regulate extracellular levels of proteins involved with neurodegenerative conditions, its impairment perhaps contributing to the mis-accumulation of soluble proteins.

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Topics: Glymphatic system (67%), Interstitial fluid (55%), Perivascular space (54%) ... read more

2,384 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/72256
Geoffrey T. Manley1, Miki Fujimura2, Tonghui Ma1, Nobuo Noshita1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Feb 2000-Nature Medicine
Abstract: Cerebral edema contributes significantly to morbidity and death associated with many common neurological disorders. However, current treatment options are limited to hyperosmolar agents and surgical decompression, therapies introduced more than 70 years ago. Here we show that mice deficient in aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a glial membrane water channel, have much better survival than wild-type mice in a model of brain edema caused by acute water intoxication. Brain tissue water content and swelling of pericapillary astrocytic foot processes in AQP4-deficient mice were significantly reduced. In another model of brain edema, focal ischemic stroke produced by middle cerebral artery occlusion, AQP4-deficient mice had improved neurological outcome. Cerebral edema, as measured by percentage of hemispheric enlargement at 24 h, was decreased by 35% in AQP4-deficient mice. These results implicate a key role for AQP4 in modulating brain water transport, and suggest that AQP4 inhibition may provide a new therapeutic option for reducing brain edema in a wide variety of cerebral disorders.

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Topics: Cerebral edema (67%), Water intoxication (56%), Aquaporin 4 (52%)

1,327 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11064-015-1581-6
Abstract: The glymphatic system is a recently discovered macroscopic waste clearance system that utilizes a unique system of perivascular tunnels, formed by astroglial cells, to promote efficient elimination of soluble proteins and metabolites from the central nervous system. Besides waste elimination, the glymphatic system also facilitates brain-wide distribution of several compounds, including glucose, lipids, amino acids, growth factors, and neuromodulators. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system function mainly during sleep and is largely disengaged during wakefulness. The biological need for sleep across all species may therefore reflect that the brain must enter a state of activity that enables elimination of potentially neurotoxic waste products, including β-amyloid. Since the concept of the glymphatic system is relatively new, we will here review its basic structural elements, organization, regulation, and functions. We will also discuss recent studies indicating that glymphatic function is suppressed in various diseases and that failure of glymphatic function in turn might contribute to pathology in neurodegenerative disorders, traumatic brain injury and stroke.

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Topics: Glymphatic system (63%)

778 Citations


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