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The Role of Language in Advancing Nationalism

01 Mar 2005-Vol. 38, pp 91-113
TL;DR: This article explored the use of language when it is needed for creating and consolidating a state's power, such as in wartime, and examined how linguistic resources and devices are used to regulate, reconstruct, and, sometimes, manipulate reality.
Abstract: This paper on language . and politics explores the use of language when it is needed for creating and consolidating a state's power, such as in wartime. I examine how linguistic resources and devices are used to regulate, reconstruct, and, sometimes, manipulate reality. The operation of political language is to categorize and label events, phenomena, people, and the state's goals, and to formulate them in a way desirable to regulate and control the ideas and behavior of people.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1993-Language

95 citations

DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: This article examined the change and continuity in discourse about four key wildlife species in the UK between 1785 and 2005 using a corpus-assisted discourse studies approach and identified three major themes in the discourse: origin and national identity, life-cycle and health, and killing animals.
Abstract: This diachronic study investigates the discursive representation of four key wildlife species in Britain—red squirrels, grey squirrels, badgers, and hedgehogs. The research takes a modern-diachronic corpus-assisted discourse studies approach (Partington, 2010) to examine the patterns of change and continuity in discourse about these focus animals published in The Times between 1785 and 2005. Corpus linguistic methods and tools, including the waves, peaks and troughs analysis (Gabrielatos, McEnery, Diggle, & Baker, 2012), diachronic collocates (McEnery & Baker, 2015), cluster analysis, keywords analysis, and concordances, identifed three major themes in the discourse, which were explored in depth: origin and national identity, life-cycle and health, and killing animals. The extent to which the findings are consistent with changing human practices and attitudes was considered in line with the discourse historical approach (Reisigl & Wodak, 2009). The major themes remain relevant over the period of interest but are associated with different focus animals at different times in response to text-external social, political, and cultural influences (such as changes in land management and human-human socio-political relations). Findings reflect a growing distance between humans and the focus animals over time, while (harmful) anthropocentric values underlying their representations are maintained in the discourse through strategies such as blame shifting and—often more subtly—anthropomorphism. Repetition of anthropocentric values in news discourse has real consequences for the animals. They are the focus of human actions that are a response to socio-political factors reflected in—and perpetuated by—discourse about them. Disruption to established narratives in the discourse polarises views and causes (actual and discursive) conflict and controversy, highlighting potential difficulties with accomplishing change. The findings can be used to inform understanding of future linguistic representations of wildlife and a number of recommendations for reducing harmful anthropocentric representations are included accordingly.

21 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that high-ranking AKP members' desire to reintroduce Arabic and Ottoman Turkish into Turkish education is emblematic of the lack of success of the language reform of the 1930s to remove all trace of Turkey's linguistic Islamic heritage, and that these linguistic symbols are being used strategically to instill in Turkey's youthful citizens a sense of religious piety that will make them more receptacle to political Islam, and thus loyal to the ruling Islamist party.
Abstract: Turkey has always been characterized by a seeming tug-a-war between polarizing social theories, political ideologies and nationalisms. The notion of nationalism depends on a variety of factors: race, ethnicity, territory, shared cultural practices, shared historical experience etc, but language can also serve as an extremely important vessel for nationalist sentiment, and this is especially true in the Turkish context where the entire orthography of the Turkish language was changed in the 1920s to accommodate the founding republic's desire to shift its identity more westward. For the majority of the twentieth century there was the social and political will to limit the influence of Arabic, not only because it wasn't simply Turkish, but also because the language carried the added weight of Islamic religious connotations, another aspect of Turkish identity that Ataturk wished to marginalize. However, within the twenty-first century there has been a shift in the Turkish government's nationalist agenda. While there have been plenty of papers written about Turkey's recent shift towards religious conservatism in stark contrast to the secular image that the Turkish elites have traditionally tried to perpetuate, fewer have explored the sociolinguistic aspects of this shift in the form of the dialogues that have started about the place of the Arabic and the Ottoman language in modern Turkish society. In this thesis the author will argue how high-ranking AKP members' desire to reintroduce Arabic and Ottoman Turkish into Turkish education is emblematic of the lack of success of the language reform of the 1930s to remove all trace of Turkey's linguistic Islamic heritage. I will also argue that these linguistic symbols are being used strategically to instill in Turkey's youthful citizens a sense of religious piety that will make them more receptacle to political Islam, and thus loyal to the ruling Islamist party.

11 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: In this paper, Anderson examines the creation and global spread of the 'imagined communities' of nationality and explores the processes that created these communities: the territorialisation of religious faiths, the decline of antique kingship, the interaction between capitalism and print, the development of vernacular languages-of-state, and changing conceptions of time.
Abstract: What makes people love and die for nations, as well as hate and kill in their name? While many studies have been written on nationalist political movements, the sense of nationality - the personal and cultural feeling of belonging to the nation - has not received proportionate attention. In this widely acclaimed work, Benedict Anderson examines the creation and global spread of the 'imagined communities' of nationality. Anderson explores the processes that created these communities: the territorialisation of religious faiths, the decline of antique kingship, the interaction between capitalism and print, the development of vernacular languages-of-state, and changing conceptions of time. He shows how an originary nationalism born in the Americas was modularly adopted by popular movements in Europe, by the imperialist powers, and by the anti-imperialist resistances in Asia and Africa. This revised edition includes two new chapters, one of which discusses the complex role of the colonialist state's mindset in the development of Third World nationalism, while the other analyses the processes by which all over the world, nations came to imagine themselves as old.

25,018 citations

Book
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: Lakoff and Johnson as mentioned in this paper suggest that these basic metaphors not only affect the way we communicate ideas, but actually structure our perceptions and understandings from the beginning, and they offer an intriguing and surprising guide to some of the most common metaphors and what they can tell us about the human mind.
Abstract: People use metaphors every time they speak. Some of those metaphors are literary - devices for making thoughts more vivid or entertaining. But most are much more basic than that - they're "metaphors we live by", metaphors we use without even realizing we're using them. In this book, George Lakoff and Mark Johnson suggest that these basic metaphors not only affect the way we communicate ideas, but actually structure our perceptions and understandings from the beginning. Bringing together the perspectives of linguistics and philosophy, Lakoff and Johnson offer an intriguing and surprising guide to some of the most common metaphors and what they can tell us about the human mind. And for this new edition, they supply an afterword both extending their arguments and offering a fascinating overview of the current state of thinking on the subject of the metaphor.

17,091 citations

Book
01 Jan 1974
TL;DR: In Frame Analysis, the brilliant theorist wrote about the ways in which people determine their answers to the questions What is going on here? and Under what circumstances do we think things are real?.
Abstract: Erving Goffman will influence the thinking and perceptions of generations to come In Frame Analysis, the brilliant theorist writes about the ways in which people determine their answers to the questions What is going on here? and Under what circumstances do we think things are real? "

11,533 citations


"The Role of Language in Advancing N..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The analysis of such an activity perspective echoes with work in sociolinguistics (Gumperz and Hymes 1972) and ethnomethodology (Garfinkel 1967, Goffman 1974) that examined the importance of individual choice, persuasion, intention, and manipulation of ideas in realizing social actions through the…...

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 1967
TL;DR: This work focuses on Ethnomethodology, which investigates the role of sex status in the lives of the Intersexed Person and some of the rules of Correct Decisions that Jurors Respect.
Abstract: 1. What is Ethnomethodology?. 2. Studies of the Routine Grounds of Everyday Activities. 3. Common Sense Knowledge of Social Structures: The Documentary Method of Interpretation in Lay and Professional Fact Finding. 4. Some Rules of Correct Decisions that Jurors Respect. 5. Passing and the Managed Achievement of Sex Status in the Intersexed Person. 6. "Good Organizational Reasons for a Bada Clinic Records". 7. Methodological Adequacy in the Quantitative Study of Selection Criteria and Selection Practices in Psychiatric Outpatient Clinics. 8. The Rational Properties of Scientific and Common Sense Activities. Appendix.

11,533 citations


"The Role of Language in Advancing N..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The analysis of such an activity perspective echoes with work in sociolinguistics (Gumperz and Hymes 1972) and ethnomethodology (Garfinkel 1967, Goffman 1974) that examined the importance of individual choice, persuasion, intention, and manipulation of ideas in realizing social actions through the…...

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 1960
TL;DR: This edition offers a new preface by Quine's student and colleague Dagfinn Follesdal that describes the never-realized plans for a second edition of Word and Object, in which Quine would offer a more unified treatment of the public nature of meaning, modalities, and propositional attitudes.
Abstract: Language consists of dispositions, socially instilled, to respond observably to socially observable stimuli. Such is the point of view from which a noted philosopher and logician examines the notion of meaning and the linguistic mechanisms of objective reference. In the course of the discussion, Professor Quine pinpoints the difficulties involved in translation, brings to light the anomalies and conflicts implicit in our language's referential apparatus, clarifies semantic problems connected with the imputation of existence, and marshals reasons for admitting or repudiating each of various categories of supposed objects. He argues that the notion of a language-transcendent "sentence-meaning" must on the whole be rejected; meaningful studies in the semantics of reference can only be directed toward substantially the same language in which they are conducted.

6,877 citations


"The Role of Language in Advancing N..." refers background in this paper

  • ...This is similar to Hume’s position, and a more modern form was advocated by Quine (1960, 1969), who maintained that classification expresses a view that reflects our needs and interests rather than the world as it is in itself....

    [...]