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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00222895.2020.1738992

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex: More Than Movement Execution.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Motor Behavior (Routledge)-Vol. 53, Iss: 2, pp 258-274
Abstract: The predominant role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in motor execution is well acknowledged. However, additional roles of M1 are getting evident in humans owing to advances in noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques. This review collates such studies in humans and proposes that M1 also plays a key role in higher cognitive processes. The review commences with the studies that have investigated the nature of connectivity of M1 with other cortical regions in light of studies based on NIBS. The review then moves on to discuss the studies that have demonstrated the role of M1 in higher cognitive processes such as attention, motor learning, motor consolidation, movement inhibition, somatomotor response, and movement imagery. Overall, the purpose of the review is to highlight the additional role of M1 in motor cognition besides motor control, which remains unexplored.

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Topics: Motor learning (66%), Motor control (63%), Motor cognition (63%) ... show more
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10 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EXPNEUROL.2018.01.010
Ivani Brys1, Pär Halje1, Robson Scheffer-Teixeira2, Mark A. Varney3  +3 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Recently, the biased and highly selective 5-HT1A agonists, NLX-112, F13714 and F15599, have been shown to alleviate dyskinesia in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease, while marginally ...

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Topics: Dyskinesia (56%), Parkinson's disease (52%), Basal ganglia (52%)

15 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/S21082750
13 Apr 2021-Sensors
Abstract: Motor learning is associated with functional brain plasticity, involving specific functional connectivity changes in the neural networks. However, the degree of learning new motor skills varies among individuals, which is mainly due to the between-subject variability in brain structure and function captured by electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Here, we propose a kernel-based functional connectivity measure to deal with inter/intra-subject variability in motor-related tasks. To this end, from spatio-temporal-frequency patterns, we extract the functional connectivity between EEG channels through their Gaussian kernel cross-spectral distribution. Further, we optimize the spectral combination weights within a sparse-based l2-norm feature selection framework matching the motor-related labels that perform the dimensionality reduction of the extracted connectivity features. From the validation results in three databases with motor imagery and motor execution tasks, we conclude that the single-trial Gaussian functional connectivity measure provides very competitive classifier performance values, being less affected by feature extraction parameters, like the sliding time window, and avoiding the use of prior linear spatial filtering. We also provide interpretability for the clustered functional connectivity patterns and hypothesize that the proposed kernel-based metric is promising for evaluating motor skills.

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Topics: Dimensionality reduction (57%), Kernel (statistics) (54%), Motor imagery (54%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1741-2552/ABA6DC
Abstract: Objective Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a technique where a weak current is passed through the electrodes placed on the scalp. The distribution of the electric current induced in the brain due to tDCS is provided by simulation toolbox like Realistic volumetric Approach based Simulator for Transcranial electric stimulation (ROAST). However, the procedure to estimate the total current density induced at the target and the intermediary region of the cortex is complex. The Systematic-Approach-for-tDCS-Analysis (SATA) was developed to overcome this problem. However, SATA is limited to standardized (MNI152) headspace only. Here we develop individual-SATA (i-SATA) to extend it to individual head. Approach T1-weighted images of 15 subjects were taken from two Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanners of different strengths. Across the subjects, the montages were simulated in ROAST. i-SATA converts the ROAST output to Talairach space. The x, y and z coordinates of the anterior commissure (AC), posterior commissure (PC), and Mid-Sagittal (MS) points are necessary for the conversion. AC and PC are detected using the acpcdetect toolbox. We developed a method to determine the MS in the image and cross-verified its location manually using BrainSight®. Main results Determination of points with i-SATA is fast and accurate. The i-SATA provided estimates of the current-density induced across an individual's cortical lobes and gyri as tested on images from two different scanners. Significance Researchers can use i-SATA for customizing tDCS-montages. With i-SATA it is also easier to compute the inter-individual variation in current-density across the target and intermediary regions of the brain. The software is publicly available.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/HEALTHCARE9080949
28 Jul 2021-Healthcare
Abstract: Dementia is a debilitating impairment of cognitive functions that affects millions of people worldwide. There are several diseases belonging to the dementia spectrum, most prominently Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), Lewy body dementia (LBD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe, non-invasive form of brain stimulation that utilizes a magnetic coil to generate an electrical field and induce numerous changes in the brain. It is considered efficacious for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this paper, we review the available studies involving rTMS in the treatment of these dementia types. The majority of studies have involved AD and shown beneficial effects, either as a standalone, or as an add-on to standard-of-care pharmacological treatment and cognitive training. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex seems to hold a central position in the applied protocols, but several parameters still need to be defined. In addition, rTMS has shown potential in mild cognitive impairment as well. Regarding the remaining dementias, research is still at preliminary phases, and large, randomized studies are currently lacking.

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Topics: Dementia (65%), Vascular dementia (62%), Brain stimulation (58%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2020.05.28.120774
30 May 2020-bioRxiv
Abstract: Background Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a technique where a weak current is passed through the electrodes placed on the scalp. The distribution of the electric current induced in the brain due to tDCS is provided by simulation toolbox like Realistic-volumetric-Approach-based-Simulator-for-Transcranial-electric-stimulation (ROAST). However, the procedure to estimate the total current density induced at the target and the intermediary region of the cortex is complex. The Systematic-Approach-for-tDCS-Analysis (SATA) was developed to overcome this problem. However, SATA is limited to standardized headspace only. Here we develop individual-SATA (𝓲-SATA) to extend it to individual head. Method T1-weighted images of 15 subjects were taken from two Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners of different strengths. Across the subjects, the montages were simulated in ROAST. 𝓲-SATA converts the ROAST output to Talairach space. The x, y and z coordinates of the anterior commissure (AC), posterior commissure (PC), and Mid-Sagittal (MS) points are necessary for the conversion. AC and PC are detected using the acpcdetect toolbox. We developed a method to determine the MS in the image and cross-verified its location manually using BrainSight®. Result Determination of points with 𝓲-SATA is fast and accurate. The 𝓲-SATA provided estimates of the current-density induced across an individual’s cortical lobes and gyri as tested on images from two different scanners. Conclusion Researchers can use 𝓲-SATA for customizing tDCS-montages. With 𝓲-SATA it is also easier to compute the inter-individual variation in current-density across the target and intermediary regions of the brain. The software is publicly available.

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Topics: Talairach coordinates (56%)

1 Citations


References
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181 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BRAIN/119.2.593
01 Apr 1996-Brain
Abstract: We recorded electrical activity from 532 neurons in the rostral part of inferior area 6 (area F5) of two macaque monkeys. Previous data had shown that neurons of this area discharge during goal-directed hand and mouth movements. We describe here the properties of a newly discovered set of F5 neurons ("mirror neurons', n = 92) all of which became active both when the monkey performed a given action and when it observed a similar action performed by the experimenter. Mirror neurons, in order to be visually triggered, required an interaction between the agent of the action and the object of it. The sight of the agent alone or of the object alone (three-dimensional objects, food) were ineffective. Hand and the mouth were by far the most effective agents. The actions most represented among those activating mirror neurons were grasping, manipulating and placing. In most mirror neurons (92%) there was a clear relation between the visual action they responded to and the motor response they coded. In approximately 30% of mirror neurons the congruence was very strict and the effective observed and executed actions corresponded both in terms of general action (e.g. grasping) and in terms of the way in which that action was executed (e.g. precision grip). We conclude by proposing that mirror neurons form a system for matching observation and execution of motor actions. We discuss the possible role of this system in action recognition and, given the proposed homology between F5 and human Brocca's region, we posit that a matching system, similar to that of mirror neurons exists in humans and could be involved in recognition of actions as well as phonetic gestures.

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Topics: Mirror neuron (57%), Common coding theory (56%), Mu wave (55%) ... show more

4,199 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 1996-
Abstract: In area F5 of the monkey premotor cortex there are neurons that discharge both when the monkey performs an action and when he observes a similar action made by another monkey or by the experimenter. We report here some of the properties of these 'mirror' neurons and we propose that their activity 'represents' the observed action. We posit, then, that this motor representation is at the basis of the understanding of motor events. Finally, on the basis of some recent data showing that, in man, the observation of motor actions activate the posterior part of inferior frontal gyrus, we suggest that the development of the lateral verbal communication system in man derives from a more ancient communication system based on recognition of hand and face gestures.

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Topics: Premotor cortex (65%), Mirror neuron (60%), Mu wave (58%) ... show more

3,856 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0926-6410(95)00038-0
Abstract: In area F5 of the monkey premotor cortex there are neurons that discharge both when the monkey performs an action and when he observes a similar action made by another monkey or by the experimenter. We report here some of the properties of these 'mirror' neurons and we propose that their activity 'represents' the observed action. We posit, then, that this motor representation is at the basis of the understanding of motor events. Finally, on the basis of some recent data showing that, in man, the observation of motor actions activate the posterior part of inferior frontal gyrus, we suggest that the development of the lateral verbal communication system in man derives from a more ancient communication system based on recognition of hand and face gestures.

... read more

Topics: Premotor cortex (65%), Mirror neuron (60%), Mu wave (58%) ... show more

3,814 Citations



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF00230027
Abstract: Neurons of the rostral part of inferior premotor cortex of the monkey discharge during goal-directed hand movements such as grasping, holding, and tearing. We report here that many of these neurons become active also when the monkey observes specific, meaningful hand movements performed by the experimenters. The effective experimenters' movements include among others placing or retrieving a piece of food from a table, grasping food from another experimenter's hand, and manipulating objects. There is always a clear link between the effective observed movement and that executed by the monkey and, often, only movements of the experimenter identical to those controlled by a given neuron are able to activate it. These findings indicate that premotor neurons can retrieve movements not only on the basis of stimulus characteristics, as previously described, but also on the basis of the meaning of the observed actions.

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Topics: Premotor cortex (55%), Mirror neuron (55%), Body movement (53%) ... show more

2,852 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20216
20203
20181