Abstract: Dementia is a debilitating impairment of cognitive functions that affects millions of people worldwide. There are several diseases belonging to the dementia spectrum, most prominently Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), Lewy body dementia (LBD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe, non-invasive form of brain stimulation that utilizes a magnetic coil to generate an electrical field and induce numerous changes in the brain. It is considered efficacious for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this paper, we review the available studies involving rTMS in the treatment of these dementia types. The majority of studies have involved AD and shown beneficial effects, either as a standalone, or as an add-on to standard-of-care pharmacological treatment and cognitive training. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex seems to hold a central position in the applied protocols, but several parameters still need to be defined. In addition, rTMS has shown potential in mild cognitive impairment as well. Regarding the remaining dementias, research is still at preliminary phases, and large, randomized studies are currently lacking.
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