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Journal ArticleDOI

The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars. Part II: AD 363-630: A Narrative Sourcebook

01 Jun 2003-The English Historical Review (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 118, Iss: 477, pp 742-743
About: This article is published in The English Historical Review.The article was published on 2003-06-01. It has received 11 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Narrative & Frontier.
Citations
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Dissertation
06 Dec 2017
TL;DR: Les protectores diuini lateris Augusti, soldats de haut rang attestes dans l’armee romaine entre le IIIe siecle and le VIe Siecle, ont ete consideres tour a tour par les historiens comme des gardes du corps imperiaux, des officiers d’etat-major, ou les successeurs des centurions as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Les protectores diuini lateris Augusti, soldats de haut rang attestes dans l’armee romaine entre le IIIe siecle et le VIe siecle, ont ete consideres tour a tour par les historiens comme des gardes du corps imperiaux, des officiers d’etat-major, ou les successeurs des centurions. Mais ces interpretations soulevent bien des contradictions que cette etude d’histoire militaire et sociale, appuyee sur un corpus prosopographique, vise a resoudre. Les evolutions du recrutement, des carrieres et des fonctions des protectores sont revelatrices des recompositions du commandement de l’armee romaine tardive. L’analyse ouvre egalement une fenetre sur l’environnement social et culturel de ces soldats privilegies, amenes a frequenter tant les champs de bataille que la cour imperiale. Enfin, en placant au centre de la reflexion la relation de ces soldats avec l’empereur, a la fois chef de l’armee et garant de l’ordre social et symbolique du monde de l’Antiquite tardive, on comprend comment les protectores s’inscrivaient, aux yeux des Romains, au sein d’un ordre terrestre des dignites refletant la hierarchie celeste.

166 citations

01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a table of Table of Table 1 : Table of contents of the table of this paper : Table 2 : Table 1.1.3.1
Abstract: ........................................................................................................................................ iii Table of

65 citations

DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: This thesis, written within the Cluster of Excellence Exc264 Topoi, applies central place theory in archaeological context in order to investigate the influence of natural environmental characteristics on the formation, development, and persistence of central places.
Abstract: This thesis, written within the Cluster of Excellence Exc264 Topoi, applies central place theory in archaeological context in order to investigate the influence of natural environmental characteristics on the formation, development, and persistence of central places. To allow an application of central place theory in archaeological context the definition of centrality is generalized. In this regard, centrality is understood as relative concentration of interaction. Applying this definition and a semi-quantitative approach to measure centrality, the intertwined influence of social and natural phenomena on the shaping and persistence of central place gets obvious: The centrality of a place can be seen as the result of interdependent processes that characterize specific features on different spatial scales, ranging from the local to the supra-regional. Natural environmental features are herein of relative importance, depending on the location and history of a central place. Therefore, to be able to assess the influence of environmental characteristics on central places, the natural and societal history of a place, in terms of its local, regional, and supra-regional integration has to be investigated.

12 citations


Cites background from "The Roman Eastern Frontier and the ..."

  • ...wars (Holmes, 1988; Greatrex and Lieu, 2005), and the demise of the antique world Antioch lost and never regained its former importance....

    [...]

DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: Boyce as mentioned in this paper argued that Ahura Mazda brought into being seven yazatas, Bounteous Immortals, lesser deities whose task it was to further the world of asa, so that it does not decay or wither, spoil or become impure.
Abstract: morality. Rather, it was a deity, Asa, created by Ahura Mazda, which could play an active role on the individual when worshipped. The latter, the Hostile Spirit, was Ahura Mazda’s opposite, the origin of counter creation; death and nothingness. Angra Mainyu created the deity of deceit and evil, Drug. It was thus the individual’s choice whether to embrace Asa or Drug, their respective creators and their influence upon existence in a cosmic battle between light and darkness, “life and not-life.” Before any other creation, Ahura Mazda brought into being seven yazatas, Bounteous Immortals, lesser deities whose task it was “to further the ‘world of asa,’ so that it does not decay or wither, spoil or become impure.” Each of these seven was appointed to a physical part of creation which was intimately tied to an abstract idea of 227 Boyce, History, vol.1, 190. 228 The term “uncreated” would have been rejected by the Zurvānites. However, modern scholars, Mary Boyce among them, interpret Zoroaster’s initial theology to be purely dualist. Arguments for this interpretation can be found throughout the first volume of Boyce’s History of Zoroastrianism. 229 Ibid., 192-5. 230 Ibid., 194, 199-201. 231 In Zoroaster’s theology, more than seven yazatas were created by Ahura Mazda. However, the first seven were charged with the most important tasks and thus, remained most closely associated with their creator. See, Boyce, History, vol. 1, 194, 202. 232 There is some uncertainty as to whether the yazatas were deities independent of Ahura Mazda or qualities of Ahura Mazda worshipped individually. Of the latter, this is a theological understanding similar to that of Hinduism, a religion with which Zoroastrianism shares many similarities, such as vocabulary and understanding of divinity. For a review of the scholarly debate, see, Boyce, History, vol. 1, 202-3. The Origins of Muslim Prayer 89 creation. For instance, the sky, “which enclosed the world like a fortress and dominated the earth,” was linked with the concept of Dominion and was ruled by the yazata Khsathra. The other aspects of Ahura Mazda’s cosmos are Water, Health, Earth, Devotion and Life. Asa was the seventh yazata, commanding fire and representing cosmic order which pervaded all existence. This theology necessitated ritual action, as the human being played an active role in the eternal battle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu. Looking at specific ritual acts employed to fulfill this duty, similarities with salāt become evident.

8 citations

References
More filters
Dissertation
06 Dec 2017
TL;DR: Les protectores diuini lateris Augusti, soldats de haut rang attestes dans l’armee romaine entre le IIIe siecle and le VIe Siecle, ont ete consideres tour a tour par les historiens comme des gardes du corps imperiaux, des officiers d’etat-major, ou les successeurs des centurions as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Les protectores diuini lateris Augusti, soldats de haut rang attestes dans l’armee romaine entre le IIIe siecle et le VIe siecle, ont ete consideres tour a tour par les historiens comme des gardes du corps imperiaux, des officiers d’etat-major, ou les successeurs des centurions. Mais ces interpretations soulevent bien des contradictions que cette etude d’histoire militaire et sociale, appuyee sur un corpus prosopographique, vise a resoudre. Les evolutions du recrutement, des carrieres et des fonctions des protectores sont revelatrices des recompositions du commandement de l’armee romaine tardive. L’analyse ouvre egalement une fenetre sur l’environnement social et culturel de ces soldats privilegies, amenes a frequenter tant les champs de bataille que la cour imperiale. Enfin, en placant au centre de la reflexion la relation de ces soldats avec l’empereur, a la fois chef de l’armee et garant de l’ordre social et symbolique du monde de l’Antiquite tardive, on comprend comment les protectores s’inscrivaient, aux yeux des Romains, au sein d’un ordre terrestre des dignites refletant la hierarchie celeste.

166 citations

01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a table of Table of Table 1 : Table of contents of the table of this paper : Table 2 : Table 1.1.3.1
Abstract: ........................................................................................................................................ iii Table of

65 citations

DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: This thesis, written within the Cluster of Excellence Exc264 Topoi, applies central place theory in archaeological context in order to investigate the influence of natural environmental characteristics on the formation, development, and persistence of central places.
Abstract: This thesis, written within the Cluster of Excellence Exc264 Topoi, applies central place theory in archaeological context in order to investigate the influence of natural environmental characteristics on the formation, development, and persistence of central places. To allow an application of central place theory in archaeological context the definition of centrality is generalized. In this regard, centrality is understood as relative concentration of interaction. Applying this definition and a semi-quantitative approach to measure centrality, the intertwined influence of social and natural phenomena on the shaping and persistence of central place gets obvious: The centrality of a place can be seen as the result of interdependent processes that characterize specific features on different spatial scales, ranging from the local to the supra-regional. Natural environmental features are herein of relative importance, depending on the location and history of a central place. Therefore, to be able to assess the influence of environmental characteristics on central places, the natural and societal history of a place, in terms of its local, regional, and supra-regional integration has to be investigated.

12 citations

DissertationDOI
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: Boyce as mentioned in this paper argued that Ahura Mazda brought into being seven yazatas, Bounteous Immortals, lesser deities whose task it was to further the world of asa, so that it does not decay or wither, spoil or become impure.
Abstract: morality. Rather, it was a deity, Asa, created by Ahura Mazda, which could play an active role on the individual when worshipped. The latter, the Hostile Spirit, was Ahura Mazda’s opposite, the origin of counter creation; death and nothingness. Angra Mainyu created the deity of deceit and evil, Drug. It was thus the individual’s choice whether to embrace Asa or Drug, their respective creators and their influence upon existence in a cosmic battle between light and darkness, “life and not-life.” Before any other creation, Ahura Mazda brought into being seven yazatas, Bounteous Immortals, lesser deities whose task it was “to further the ‘world of asa,’ so that it does not decay or wither, spoil or become impure.” Each of these seven was appointed to a physical part of creation which was intimately tied to an abstract idea of 227 Boyce, History, vol.1, 190. 228 The term “uncreated” would have been rejected by the Zurvānites. However, modern scholars, Mary Boyce among them, interpret Zoroaster’s initial theology to be purely dualist. Arguments for this interpretation can be found throughout the first volume of Boyce’s History of Zoroastrianism. 229 Ibid., 192-5. 230 Ibid., 194, 199-201. 231 In Zoroaster’s theology, more than seven yazatas were created by Ahura Mazda. However, the first seven were charged with the most important tasks and thus, remained most closely associated with their creator. See, Boyce, History, vol. 1, 194, 202. 232 There is some uncertainty as to whether the yazatas were deities independent of Ahura Mazda or qualities of Ahura Mazda worshipped individually. Of the latter, this is a theological understanding similar to that of Hinduism, a religion with which Zoroastrianism shares many similarities, such as vocabulary and understanding of divinity. For a review of the scholarly debate, see, Boyce, History, vol. 1, 202-3. The Origins of Muslim Prayer 89 creation. For instance, the sky, “which enclosed the world like a fortress and dominated the earth,” was linked with the concept of Dominion and was ruled by the yazata Khsathra. The other aspects of Ahura Mazda’s cosmos are Water, Health, Earth, Devotion and Life. Asa was the seventh yazata, commanding fire and representing cosmic order which pervaded all existence. This theology necessitated ritual action, as the human being played an active role in the eternal battle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu. Looking at specific ritual acts employed to fulfill this duty, similarities with salāt become evident.

8 citations