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The Santali Cluster in Bangladesh: A Sociolinguistic Survey

TL;DR: In this paper, sociolinguistic research conducted among speakers of five AustroAsiatic language varieties in northwest Bangladesh: Koda, Kol, Mahali, Mundari, and Santali is reported.
Abstract: This paper reports on sociolinguistic research conducted among speakers of five AustroAsiatic language varieties in northwest Bangladesh: Koda, Kol, Mahali, Mundari, and Santali. These are collectively referred to as the Santali Cluster because Santali is the most populous and developed language among these five varieties. Linguistic variation within and across these varieties, long-term viability of each variety, and attitudes of speakers towards their own and other language varieties were investigated. The degree of intelligibility in Santali by speakers of the other varieties and the bilingual ability in Bangla of speakers from each variety were also studied. This research was carried out from November 2004 through January 2005 through the use of word lists, questionnaires, a Bangla Sentence Repetition Test, and stories recorded in Santali, Mundari, and Mahali.
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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine major challenges to the implementation of a multilingual language-in-education policy for linguistic minorities in a country where a single language is spoken by a vast majority of people and is also the focus of the country's national language policy.
Abstract: Bangladesh is one of the poorest nations in the world – a country in which 98% of the people speak the national language Bangla and identify themselves as Bangladeshi nationals. There are also 45 or more indigenous groups which form linguistic minorities in the country, speaking more than 30 different languages, and ethno-linguistically different from the majority of the Bangla-speaking population. The country's educational policies have, until recently, ignored language issues in relation to the ethno-linguistic minorities. The National Education Policy 2009 (Final) proposes a first-language-based education policy for the indigenous minorities in the country. Considering the current language policy and planning context of Bangladesh, this paper examines major challenges to the implementation of a multilingual language-in-education policy for linguistic minorities in a country where a single language is spoken by a vast majority of people and is also the focus of the country's national language policy. Be...

32 citations


Cites background from "The Santali Cluster in Bangladesh: ..."

  • ...The indigenous people use their mother tongues at home at the rate of 80–100% in addition to another indigenous language besides the mother tongues, and also Bangla (Ahmed et al., 2010; Brightbill et al., 2007; Kim & Kim, 2008a, 2008b; Rafi, 2006)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In Carbon in Earth as discussed by the authors, the reader will learn about the intricate aspects of atomic mineral crystal structures, models of carbon emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions in a variety of topics related to mineralogy and geochemistry.
Abstract: Every RiMG volume is unique and special and, over the years, RiMG volumes have cumulatively covered the atomic to global scales for a variety of topics related to mineralogy and geochemistry. Carbon in Earth continues in this tradition. In Carbon in Earth , the reader will learn about the intricate aspects of atomic mineral crystal structures, models of carbon emissions …

18 citations

01 Jan 1969

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
31 Dec 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the social customs, livelihood and cultural features of Santal community keeping a special focus on the historical development, which indicates that they have been deprived in many ways, but they are still able to uphold their distinct cultural features in most of the cases.
Abstract: The Santals are one of the most ancient indigenous communities in Bangladesh. Many historians denote them as the earliest settlers in greater Bengal. They mainly belong to Austro-Asiatic group of pre-Aryan settlers. Being the indigenous community of the country, they should have been more influential and developed. But the reality is different. Santals are deprived of stately rights and privileges in many aspects. It has a historical legacy of isolation and clash. As Santals live isolated from mainland people, proper attention was never given to them. Rather they were tortured and oppressed both by colonial and post-colonial rulers, which led them to launch many resistances. But ultimately those resistances could not completely stop the deprivation. In spite of all these challenges, Santals are still struggling to uphold their socio-cultural tradition. The absence of written document in Santal society created a paucity of information in the reconstruction of their history. Therefore, secondary source was mainly used in this research. This study tries to explore the social customs, livelihood and cultural features of Santal community keeping a special focus on the historical development. It indicates that they have historically been deprived in many ways, but they are still able to uphold their distinct cultural features in most of the cases.

3 citations

References
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TL;DR: This book discusses Societal Multilingualism, Language Planning and Standardization, and Vernacular Language Edition, which aims to provide a history of language planning and standardization in the vernacular language world.
Abstract: Editor's Preface. Introduction. 1. Societal Multilingualism. 2. Diglossia. 3. Qulaitative Formulae. 4. Statistics. 5. Quantitative Analysis. 6. Language Attitudes. 7. Language Choice. 8. Language Maintenance and Shift. 9. Language Planning and Standardization. 10. Language-Planning Cases. 11. Vernacular Language Edition. Bibliography. Index.

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Trending Questions (1)
What are the steps involved in cluster sampling for socioeconomic survey in Bangladesh?

The provided paper is about a sociolinguistic survey conducted among speakers of five AustroAsiatic language varieties in northwest Bangladesh. It does not provide information about cluster sampling for socioeconomic surveys in Bangladesh.