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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/D41586-021-00531-Z

The search for animals harbouring coronavirus - and why it matters.

02 Mar 2021-Nature (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 591, Iss: 7848, pp 26-28
Abstract: Scientists are monitoring pets, livestock and wildlife to work out where SARS-CoV-2 could hide, and whether it could resurge. Scientists are monitoring pets, livestock and wildlife to work out where SARS-CoV-2 could hide, and whether it could resurge.

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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1089/ARS.2021.0017
Abstract: Significance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affects every aspect of human life by challenging bodily, socioeco...

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Topics: Coronavirus (55%)

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/TBED.14290
M Karikalan1, Vishal Chander1, Sonalika Mahajan1, Pallavi Deol1  +7 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The current pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has underlined the importance of emerging diseases of zoonotic importance. Along with human beings, several species of wild and pet animals have been demonstrated to be infected by SARS-CoV-2, both naturally and experimentally. In addition, with constant emergence of new variants, the species susceptibility might further change which warrants intensified screening efforts. India is a vast and second most populated country, with a habitat of a very diverse range of animal species. In this study we place on record of SARS-CoV-2 infections in three captive Asiatic lions. Detailed genomic characterization revealed involvement of Delta mutant (Pango lineage B.1.617.2) of SARS-CoV-2 at two different locations. Interestingly, no other feline species enclosed in the zoo/park were found infected. The epidemiological and molecular analysis will contribute to the understanding of the emerging mutants of SARS-CoV-2 in wild and domestic animals.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.VIRUSRES.2021.198473
09 Jun 2021-Virus Research
Abstract: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the first known pandemic caused by a coronavirus. Its causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), appears to be capable of infecting different mammalian species. Recent detections of this virus in pet, zoo, wild, and farm animals have compelled inquiry regarding the zoonotic (animal-to-human) and reverse zoonotic (human-to-animal) transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 with the potential of COVID-19 pandemic evolving into a panzootic. It is important to monitor the global spread of disease and to assess the significance of genomic changes to support prevention and control efforts during a pandemic. An understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology provides opportunities to prevent the risk of repeated re-infection of humans and requires a robust One Health-based investigation. This review paper describes the known properties and the existing gaps in scientific knowledge about the zoonotic and reverse zoonotic transmissibility of the novel virus SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 disease it causes.

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Topics: Coronavirus (54%), Panzootic (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJGH-2021-006810
Nick Wilson1, Osman Mansoor, Matt Boyd, Amanda Kvalsvig1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Aug 2021-BMJ Global Health
Abstract: Elimination and eradication of disease are among the ultimate goals of public health1 (for definitions see box 1). Vaccination has globally eradicated smallpox, rinderpest (a cattle disease that caused famines2) and two of the three serotypes of poliovirus.3 Three other vaccine-preventable diseases are eradicable globally with current technology,4 with measles the leading contender and with MMR vaccination potentially eradicating mumps and rubella at the same time. Some other diseases are close to being eradicated but without use of vaccines such as with the Guinea Worm Eradication Programme.5 Similarly, China has recently eliminated malaria with a range of non-vaccination tools, to become the 40th country to be certified malaria-free.6 Box 1 Definitions of key disease control terms from the Dahlem Workshop19 Control: The reduction of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity or mortality to a locally acceptable level as a result of deliberate efforts; continued intervention measures are required to maintain the reduction. Example: diarrhoeal diseases. Elimination of disease: Reduction to zero of the incidence of a specified disease in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts; continued intervention measures are required. Example: neonatal tetanus. Elimination of infections: Reduction to zero of the incidence of infection caused by a specific agent in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts; continued measures to prevent re-establishment of transmission are required. Example: measles, poliomyelitis. Eradication: Permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by a specific agent as a result of deliberate efforts; intervention measures are no longer needed. Example: smallpox. Extinction: The specific infectious agent no longer exists in nature or in the laboratory. Example: none. Is COVID-19 also potentially eradicable? Or is it inevitably endemic having established itself across the world? Commentators have focused on the challenges of reaching population (herd) immunity,7 yet population immunity is not essential and was not achieved for smallpox, which was eradicated through ring vaccination. As proof of concept for COVID-19 eradication, several countries and jurisdictions have achieved elimination without vaccination, using new and established public health and social measures (PHSMs) (eg, border control, physical distancing, mask wearing, testing and contact tracing supported by genome sequencing).8 Successful jurisdictions have included those with vast land borders such as China, high population densities such as Hong Kong,9 but also island nations such as Iceland and New Zealand, although with occasional outbreaks from border control failures that have been brought under control.10

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Topics: Herd immunity (58%), Vaccination (56%), Population (55%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13101995
04 Oct 2021-Viruses
Abstract: Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) is known to be an etiological agent, causing infections in laboratory rats. Until now, its role has only been considered in studies on respiratory and salivary gland infections. The scant literature data, consisting mainly of papers from the last century, do not sufficiently address the topic of SDAV infections. The ongoing pandemic has demonstrated, once again, the role of the Coronaviridae family as extremely dangerous etiological agents of human zoonoses. The ability of coronaviruses to cross the species barrier and change to hosts commonly found in close proximity to humans highlights the need to characterize SDAV infections. The main host of the infection is the rat, as mentioned above. Rats inhabit large urban agglomerations, carrying a vast epidemic threat. Of the 2277 existing rodent species, 217 are reservoirs for 66 zoonotic diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. This review provides insight into the current state of knowledge of SDAV characteristics and its likely zoonotic potential.

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17 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2012-7
Peng Zhou1, Xing-Lou Yang1, Xian Guang Wang2, Ben Hu1  +25 moreInstitutions (3)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1–4. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5–7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV. Characterization of full-length genome sequences from patients infected with a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) shows that the sequences are nearly identical and indicates that the virus is related to a bat coronavirus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (67%), Betacoronavirus (54%), Deltacoronavirus (51%) ... read more

12,056 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABB7015
Jianzhong Shi1, Zhiyuan Wen1, Gongxun Zhong1, Huanliang Yang1  +17 moreInstitutions (2)
08 Apr 2020-Science
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the infectious disease COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), which was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Despite extensive efforts to control the disease, COVID-19 has now spread to more than 100 countries and caused a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in bats; however, the intermediate animal sources of the virus are unknown. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and animals in close contact with humans to SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens, and ducks, but ferrets and cats are permissive to infection. Additionally, cats are susceptible to airborne transmission. Our study provides insights into the animal models for SARS-CoV-2 and animal management for COVID-19 control.

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Topics: Airborne transmission (54%)

1,009 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABE5901
08 Jan 2021-Science
Abstract: Animal experiments have shown that nonhuman primates, cats, ferrets, hamsters, rabbits, and bats can be infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition, SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in felids, mink, and dogs in the field. Here, we describe an in-depth investigation using whole-genome sequencing of outbreaks on 16 mink farms and the humans living or working on these farms. We conclude that the virus was initially introduced by humans and has since evolved, most likely reflecting widespread circulation among mink in the beginning of the infection period, several weeks before detection. Despite enhanced biosecurity, early warning surveillance, and immediate culling of animals in affected farms, transmission occurred between mink farms in three large transmission clusters with unknown modes of transmission. Of the tested mink farm residents, employees, and/or individuals with whom they had been in contact, 68% had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Individuals for which whole genomes were available were shown to have been infected with strains with an animal sequence signature, providing evidence of animal-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within mink farms.

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Topics: Mink (72%)

412 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-018-0010-9
Peng Zhou1, Hang Fan, Tian Lan2, Xing-Lou Yang1  +41 moreInstitutions (6)
04 Apr 2018-Nature
Abstract: Cross-species transmission of viruses from wildlife animal reservoirs poses a marked threat to human and animal health 1 . Bats have been recognized as one of the most important reservoirs for emerging viruses and the transmission of a coronavirus that originated in bats to humans via intermediate hosts was responsible for the high-impact emerging zoonosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 2–10 . Here we provide virological, epidemiological, evolutionary and experimental evidence that a novel HKU2-related bat coronavirus, swine acute diarrhoea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), is the aetiological agent that was responsible for a large-scale outbreak of fatal disease in pigs in China that has caused the death of 24,693 piglets across four farms. Notably, the outbreak began in Guangdong province in the vicinity of the origin of the SARS pandemic. Furthermore, we identified SADS-related CoVs with 96–98% sequence identity in 9.8% (58 out of 591) of anal swabs collected from bats in Guangdong province during 2013–2016, predominantly in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus spp.) that are known reservoirs of SARS-related CoVs. We found that there were striking similarities between the SADS and SARS outbreaks in geographical, temporal, ecological and aetiological settings. This study highlights the importance of identifying coronavirus diversity and distribution in bats to mitigate future outbreaks that could threaten livestock, public health and economic growth. Analysis of viral samples from deceased piglets shows that a bat coronavirus was responsible for an outbreak of fatal disease in China and highlights the importance of the identification of coronavirus diversity and distribution in bats in order to mitigate future outbreaks of disease.

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Topics: Coronavirus (58%), Outbreak (54%)

386 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABC4730
Hongjing Gu1, Qi Chen1, Guan Yang2, Lei He1  +28 moreInstitutions (4)
25 Sep 2020-Science
Abstract: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prioritized the development of small-animal models for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We adapted a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by serial passaging in the respiratory tract of aged BALB/c mice. The resulting mouse-adapted strain at passage 6 (called MASCp6) showed increased infectivity in mouse lung and led to interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory responses in both young and aged mice after intranasal inoculation. Deep sequencing revealed a panel of adaptive mutations potentially associated with the increased virulence. In particular, the N501Y mutation is located at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. The protective efficacy of a recombinant RBD vaccine candidate was validated by using this model. Thus, this mouse-adapted strain and associated challenge model should be of value in evaluating vaccines and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Vaccine efficacy (54%), BALB/c (53%)

367 Citations


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