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Journal ArticleDOI

The Separation of Powers in the Eighteenth Century

01 Feb 1928-American Political Science Review (Cambridge University Press (CUP))-Vol. 22, Iss: 1, pp 32-44
TL;DR: The notion of dynamic equilibrium was introduced by the authors of The Federalist as mentioned in this paper, who argued that the causes of faction could not be removed without abolishing the liberty which is essential to political life.
Abstract: “Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society.” Thus the authors of The Federalist defined the purposes of the government created by the Federal Convention. But they reached this definition as the conclusion to a discussion of the factious nature of mankind. Madison had already remarked that the causes of faction could not be removed without abolishing the liberty which is essential to political life. He believed, however, that the control of its effects was within human power. To the mind of the Virginian the vital political forces in the state should be tied up in a nice poise through the clauses of a written constitution. A government so contrived would, as Madison believed, “secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation.”The ideal which Madison envisaged was one of dynamic equilibrium. He thought that by deriving the various branches of the government from different sources all positive action to the detriment of established order and guaranteed rights would be checked from the outset. Every safeguard against “the mutability of public councils” was to be embodied in the interior structure of the government itself. It was not enough that government should have a dependence upon the people; “experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions.”The political experience to which Madison referred was fresh in the minds of all the men who assembled at Philadelphia in the summer of 1787. It was afforded by the thirteen states, in none of which did political practice square with the expressed provisions of its constitution.
Citations
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Book
07 Oct 2015
TL;DR: Hobson as discussed by the authors looks at the historical contrast between the strongly negative perceptions of democracy in the 18th century and the very high degree of acceptance and legitimacy in contemporary international politics: in the past, its present role and the likely future challenges.
Abstract: Little over 200 years ago, a quarter of a century of warfare with an 'outlaw state' brought the great powers of Europe to their knees. That state was the revolutionary democracy of France. Since then, there has been a remarkable transformation in the way democracy is understood and valued - today, it is the non-democratic states that are seen as rogue regimes. Christopher Hobson looks at the historical contrast between the strongly negative perceptions of democracy in the 18th century and the very high degree of acceptance and legitimacy in contemporary international politics. Building on this, Hobson looks at the role of democracy in international relations: in the past, its present role and the likely future challenges.

75 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The principle of l'equilibre institutionnel as mentioned in this paper was used by the Cour de justice de l'UE to regulate the repartition of pouvoirs in l’UE.
Abstract: Le principe de l’equilibre institutionnel a ete utilise par la Cour de justice depuis les origines de la construction europeenne afin de reguler la repartition des pouvoirs entre les institutions des Communautes europeennes puis de l’Union europeenne. Cette these vise a etablir une definition du principe en identifiant ses elements constitutifs. La determination de son champ d’application, tant materiel qu’organique, et de ses fonctions dans la jurisprudence permet d’y voir un principe general du droit s’appliquant a l’ensemble des institutions et organes de l’Union dotes d’un pouvoir de decision. Principe structurel, l’equilibre institutionnel garantit les elements fondamentaux du systeme institutionnel de l’Union europeenne, en particulier l’independance organique et la collaboration fonctionnelle des institutions. Il ne constitue pourtant pas un frein a l’evolution du systeme. Utilise dans un nombre limite d’affaires, le principe pourrait etre exploite de facon plus systematique par la Cour de justice. En tant qu’element structurant de l’organisation horizontale des pouvoirs, il donne une cle de comprehension du systeme institutionnel de l’Union et de ses evolutions. Il pourrait s’appliquer a des problematiques nouvelles issues notamment du traite de Lisbonne, telles que la delimitation entre actes legislatifs, actes delegues et actes d’execution. Apte a apprehender l’ensemble des rapports de pouvoir entre institutions, le principe de l’equilibre institutionnel, entendu dans un rapport de compatibilite avec le principe de separation des pouvoirs, pourrait constituer un fondement theorique du regime politique de l’Union europeenne.

64 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on musings and silences in the margins of Canadian Chief Justice William Osgoode's late-eighteenth-century law library to understand the role he assigned to Westminster-based imperial law in the transmission of 'British justice' to the colonies.
Abstract: This essay focuses on musings and silences in the margins of Canadian Chief Justice William Osgoode's late-eighteenth-century law library, to understand the role he assigned to Westminster-based imperial law in the transmission of 'British justice' to the colonies. It concludes that role was limited, mostly by Osgoode's greater commitment of time and energy to legislative and executive branches of government than to the judiciary, and by his sometimes cavalier impatience with English courts and legal commentators.

15 citations

01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this paper, James Madison and John Witherspoon sont consideres comme les fondateurs de la pensee politique americaine, and on retrouve les racines theologiques de cette penseé.
Abstract: James Madison et John Witherspoon sont consideres comme les fondateurs de la pensee politique americaine. Chez ces deux auteurs, on retrouve les racines theologiques de cette pensee. Madison a traduit les conceptions de Witherspoon sur la nature humaine en un instrument politique. Le calvinisme est une composante incontournable de la formation de ces deux hommes: suspicion a l'egard de la nature humaine qui est avant tout faite de peche. Cependant, Madison evite le pessimisme et met sa confiance dans la capacite des hommes a conduire un processus democratique

6 citations

References
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Book
23 May 2011

17 citations

Book
01 Jan 1925

14 citations

Book
01 Dec 2001

5 citations