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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/0960085X.2020.1850186

The show must go on - virtualisation of sport events during the COVID-19 pandemic

04 Mar 2021-European Journal of Information Systems (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 30, Iss: 2, pp 119-136
Abstract: Due to the high risk of COVID-19 transmission, many sport events, including organised cycling competitions, have been cancelled. Nevertheless, staying active is important for individual well-being ...

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JBUSRES.2021.05.044
Abstract: A new form of sports platforms transfers traditional sports like cycling into a virtual world and lets users socialize, exercise or compete with each other. Despite the increasing public attention, there is no research on motivational factors of this advanced mixed-reality technology allowing virtual-mediated physical interaction. Therefore, we proposed a research model and tested it using structural equation modelling combined with qualitative interviews to investigate the platform’s usage. Our results reveal that utilitarian benefits relate to the task-purposes of health consciousness and training, while hedonic benefits relate to training, customizing and socializing. Hedonic benefits are more strongly related to use intention than utilitarian, but subgroup-specific differences are observed. Privacy concerns constitute a risk for all users to continued use of these platforms, while cheating is relevant only for competitive users. Use intention positively relates to actual use behavior in the form of usage time, number of races and followed users.

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Topics: Cheating (53%), Mixed reality (52%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/24704067.2021.1936592
Daniel Svensson1, Aage Radmann2Institutions (2)
21 Jun 2021-
Abstract: Sport has often had an important role in times of crisis, but the Covid-19 pandemic is another matter. Sport was heavily affected world-wide on all levels. In Sweden, gathering people for endurance...

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/17511321.2021.1945669
Cem Abanazir1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Esports’ rise in popularity has led the Olympic Movement (OM) to consider esports as a possible addition to the Olympic programme. A positive stance on the part of the OM towards certain aspects of...

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/16184742.2021.1956560
Kobe Helsen1, Inge Derom2, Inge Derom1, Joris Corthouts1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Research question Due to government restrictions because of COVID-19, all participatory sport events (PSEs) were cancelled. As a result, knowledge is needed as to how and to what extent participants of PSEs modified their sport behaviour to fill the void of event cancellation. Therefore, this study aimed to (1) investigate to what extent event participants have modified their sport behaviour as a result of the COVID-19 measures, and (2) analyse the factors that determine participation in virtual events (real activities using an online recording platform). Research methods A total of 2869 respondents completed an online survey which was widely disseminated in Flanders (Belgium) six weeks after the announcement of the COVID-19 lockdown. The sample included both event and non-event participants. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used to investigate how event participants adapted their sport behaviour and which factors determined virtual event participation. Results and findings Since the COVID-19 measures, event participants did not decrease the frequency but only the intensity of their sport behaviour. Based on social ecological theory, participation in virtual events could be explained by both individual determinants (e.g. motivation towards developing skills), and interpersonal determinants (e.g. previous participation in a virtual event). Implications This study contributes to research on the impact of COVID-19 measures and consequently the cancellation of PSEs on sport behaviour of event participants. Confronted with an uncertain future, the findings provide insights for event organisers to develop and optimise virtual event experiences in order to reach non-event participants as well.

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Topics: Event (computing) (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JRFM14070296
29 Jun 2021-
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us to live in social isolation and has brought an important element of social life, the events industry, to a complete standstill. In resurrecting the events industry, the most urgent focus is on managing the risk of any crowd-control measures with a view to reducing to zero the danger of the virus spreading. This research focuses on the main issue of the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the organization of sports events (SEs), and in particular, cycling competitions. This study, therefore, aims to provide deeper insights into (a) the measures introduced to face the health emergency situation in cycling events, (b) the comparison of these measures with previous experiences in similar SE contexts, and (c) the possible evolution of organizational models for cycling events in the post-pandemic era. Fifteen semi-structured interviews with cycling athletes, managers, and officials constitute the methodological basis for this study. The results show that countermeasures have been taken that are effective in dealing with pandemic characteristics and are likely to be applied in the future, while others will be phased out or used again only when necessary. This study enhances scientific knowledge by analyzing a renewed approach to risk management for SEs, with a specific focus on pandemics and medical risks. Finally, the study shows that cycling events need to adapt the specifics of such a new approach to the standards projected on future scenarios for which the COVID-19 pandemic has paved the way.

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Topics: Risk management (52%)

1 Citations


References
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80 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/001316446002000104
Jacob Cohen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: CONSIDER Table 1. It represents in its formal characteristics a situation which arises in the clinical-social-personality areas of psychology, where it frequently occurs that the only useful level of measurement obtainable is nominal scaling (Stevens, 1951, pp. 2526), i.e. placement in a set of k unordered categories. Because the categorizing of the units is a consequence of some complex judgment process performed by a &dquo;two-legged meter&dquo; (Stevens, 1958), it becomes important to determine the extent to which these judgments are reproducible, i.e., reliable. The procedure which suggests itself is that of having two (or more) judges independently categorize a sample of units and determine the degree, significance, and

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31,112 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1980-
Abstract: History Conceptual Foundations Uses and Kinds of Inference The Logic of Content Analysis Designs Unitizing Sampling Recording Data Languages Constructs for Inference Analytical Techniques The Use of Computers Reliability Validity A Practical Guide

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Topics: Sampling (statistics) (61%), Inference (58%)

24,118 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Paul Milgram received the BASc degree from the University of Toronto in 1970, the MSEE degree from the Technion (Israel) in 1973 and the PhD degree from the University of Toronto in 1980 From 1980 to 1982 he was a ZWO Visiting Scientist and a NATO Postdoctoral in the Netherlands, researching automobile driving behaviour From 1982 to 1984 he was a Senior Research Engineer in Human Engineering at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR) in Amsterdam, where his work involved the modelling of aircraft flight crew activity, advanced display concepts and control loops with human operators in space teleoperation Since 1986 he has worked at the Industrial Engineering Department of the University of Toronto, where he is currently an Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Human Factors Engineering group He is also cross appointed to the Department of Psychology In 1993-94 he was an invited researcher at the ATR Communication Systems Research Laboratories, in Kyoto, Japan His research interests include display and control issues in telerobotics and virtual environments, stereoscopic video and computer graphics, cognitive engineering, and human factors issues in medicine He is also President of Translucent Technologies, a company which produces "Plato" liquid crystal visual occlusion spectacles (of which he is the inventor), for visual and psychomotor research

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3,605 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-018-37186-2
09 Jan 2019-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are known due to their mutagenic activity. Among them, 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) are considered as two of the most potent mutagens found in atmospheric particles. In the present study 2-NBA, 3-NBA and selected PAHs and Nitro-PAHs were determined in fine particle samples (PM 2.5) collected in a bus station and an outdoor site. The fuel used by buses was a diesel-biodiesel (96:4) blend and light-duty vehicles run with any ethanol-to-gasoline proportion. The concentrations of 2-NBA and 3-NBA were, on average, under 14.8 µg g−1 and 4.39 µg g−1, respectively. In order to access the main sources and formation routes of these compounds, we performed ternary correlations and multivariate statistical analyses. The main sources for the studied compounds in the bus station were diesel/biodiesel exhaust followed by floor resuspension. In the coastal site, vehicular emission, photochemical formation and wood combustion were the main sources for 2-NBA and 3-NBA as well as the other PACs. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) were calculated for both places, which presented low values, showing low cancer risk incidence although the ILCR values for the bus station were around 2.5 times higher than the ILCR from the coastal site.

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2,458 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1468-2958.2002.TB00826.X
Abstract: As a method specifically intended for the study of messages, content analysis is fundamental to mass communication research. Intercoder reliability, more specifically termed intercoder agreement, is a measure of the extent to which independent judges make the same coding decisions in evaluating the characteristics of messages, and is at the heart of this method. Yet there are few standard and accessible guidelines available regarding the appropriate procedures to use to assess and report intercoder reliability, or software tools to calculate it. As a result, it seems likely that there is little consistency in how this critical element of content analysis is assessed and reported in published mass communication studies. Following a review of relevant concepts, indices, and tools, a content analysis of 200 studies utilizing content analysis published in the communication literature between 1994 and 1998 is used to characterize practices in the field. The results demonstrate that mass communication researchers often fail to assess (or at least report) intercoder reliability and often rely on percent agreement, an overly liberal index. Based on the review and these results, concrete guidelines are offered regarding procedures for assessment and reporting of this important aspect of content analysis.

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Topics: Inter-rater reliability (51%)

2,291 Citations


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YearCitations
20217